Universal active filter

The circuit as shown gives the bandpass operation the transfer function calculated from FBP(s) = where = 1 + s/Qo>0 + s2/w02. The cut-off frequency, 0, and the Q-factor are given by 0 = g/C and Q = gR/2 where g is the transconductance at room temperature. Interchanging the capacitor C with the resistor R at the input of the circuit high-pass operation is obtained. A low-pass filter is obtained by applying two parallel connections ctf R and C as shown in Fig. 2. The low-pass operation may be much improved with the circuit as given in Fig. 3.
Universal active filter - schematic

Here the gain and Q may be set up separately with respect to the cut-off frequency according to the equations Q = 1/fB = 1 + R2/R!, A = Q2 and 0 = g ffi/C.


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