555 Timer as an Astable Multivibrator

  
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An astable multivibrator, often called a free-running multivibrator, is a rectan ­gular-wave generating cir ­cuit. Unlike the monostable multivibrator, this circuit does not require any ex ­ternal trigger to change the state of the output, hence the name free-running. Before going to make the circuit, make sure your 555 IC is working. For that go
555 Timer as an Astable Multivibrator - schematic

through the article: How to test a 555 IC for working An astable multivibrator can be produced by adding resistors and a capacitor to the basic timer IC, as illustrated in figure. The timing during which the output is either high or low is determined by the externally connected two resistors and a capacitor. The details of the astable multivibrator circuit are given below. Pin 1 is grounded; pins 4 and 8 are shorted and then tied to supply +Vcc, output (VOUT is taken form pin 3; pin 2 and 6 are shorted and the connected to ground through capacitor C, pin 7 is connected to supply + VCC through a resistor RA; and between pin 6 and 7 a resistor RB is connected. At pin 5 either a bypass capacitor of 0. 01 F is connected or modulation input is applied. In figure, when Q is low or output VOUT is high, the discharging transistor is cut- ­off and the capacitor C begins charging toward VCC through resistances RA and RB. Because of this, the charging time constant is (RA + RB) C. Eventually, the threshold voltage exceeds +2/3 VCC, the comparator 1 has a high output and triggers the flip-flop so that its Q is high and the timer output is low. With Q high, the discharge transistor saturates and pin 7 grounds so that the capacitor C discharges through resistance RB with a discharging time constant RB C. With the discharging of capacitor, trigger voltage at inverting input of comparator 2 decreases. When it drops below 1/3VCC, the output...



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