A multivibrator which generates square waves of its own (i. e without any external trigger pulse) is known as astable multivibrator. It is also called free ramming multivibrator. It has no stable state but only two quasi-stable (half-stable) makes oscillating continuously between these states. Thus it is just an oscillator since it requires no exte

rnal pulse for its operation of course it does require D. C power. In such circuit neither of the two transistors reaches a stable state. It switches back and forth from one state to the other, remaining in each state for a time determined by circuit constants. In other words, at first one transistor conducts (i. e. ON state) and the other stays in the OFF state for some time. After this period of time, the second transistor is automatically turned ON and the first transistor turned OFF. Thus the multivibrator will generate a square wave of its own. The width of the square wave and it frequency will depend upon the circuit constants. Figure (a) shows the circuit of a collector coupled astable multivibrator using two identical NPN transistors Q1 and Q2. It is possible to have RL1 = RL2 = RL = R1 = R2 = R and C1 = C2 = C. In that case, the circuit is known as symmetrical astable multivibrator. The transistor Q1 is forward biased by the Vcc supply through resistor R2. Similarly the transistor Q2 is forward biased by the Vcc supply through resistor R1. The output of transistor Q1 is coupled to the input of transistor Q2 through the capacitor C2. Similarly the output of transistor Q2 is coupled to the input of transistor Q1 through the capacitor C1. It consists of two common emitter amplifying stages. Each stage provides a feedback through a capacitor at the input of the other. Since the amplifying stage introduces a 180o phase...

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