Battery Indicator based on PIC18f452

  
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If both the reading are high then the diode is short. If both the readings are Low then the diode is open. If any of read pins are low and the second is high then the diode is good. This concept can be easily extended to test a transistor by realizing that a transistor consists of two PN junctions: one between the base and the emitter (BE junction
Battery Indicator based on PIC18f452 - schematic

), and the another between the base and the collector (BC junction). If both the junctions conduct in only one direction, the transistor is normal, otherwise it is faulty. We can also identify the type (PNP or NPN) of the transistor by considering the direction of the current conduction. Three I/O pins of a microcontroller are required to implement the testing algorithm for a transistor. 2. Set D1 High and read D2. If D2 is High, EB junction conducts, otherwise not. Set D3 High and read D2. If D2 is High, CB junction conducts, otherwise not. Now, if only the BE and BC junctions conduct, the transistor is of NPN type and is working fine. And, if only the EB and CB junctions conduct, the transistor is still normal but the transistor type is PNP. All other cases (like EB and BE both conduct, or BC and CB both not conducting, etc. ) indicate the transistor is not good. This project gives an idea that how we can interface the keypad and & Segment Display with PIC Microcontroller. When we press any digit from keypad, it will be displayed on the seven segment display. By pressing the # key, digit will increment and by pressing the * key, displayed digit will be decremented. 7 Segment Displays are of two types. Common Anode and Common Cathode. In Common Anode type display, Anode of each segment of display is common and we connect it to the Vcc or +5V. Whereas, cathode of each segment is available on the physical pins of 7 segment...



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