Build an Servo Scales

With a bit of adeptness, you can build an electronic scales based on a servo motor. Depending on the type of servo you use, it can measure weights of up to around five kilograms (11 lbs) with reasonable accuracy. If you examine the operating principle of a servo motor in more detail (Figure1a), you can see that in simple terms, it consists of a control loop that
Build an Servo Scales - schematic

uses a potentiometer to convert the motor position to a voltage that is compared to the voltage from a PWM converter. Based in this information, the motor is rotated so that its measured position corresponds to the desired position (U2 = U1). As can be seen from Figure1, all you need for a scales based on a servo motor is a square-wave oscillator that supplies a signal at a constant frequency of around 50 Hz with a f ixed duty cycle of approximately 10%. This defines a fixed setting for the position of the motor axle. If a mechanical force tries to rotate the motor axle in this situation, the servo control loop adjusts the drive signal to the motor to counteract the rotational force. The motor thus has to supply an opposing force, and that costs power, with the result that the current through the motor increases. With a type RS-2 servo, this current can rise to as much as 1 A, while the quiescent current is no more than a few dozen milliampG¨res. If you attach an arm to the motor axle and fit it with a weighing pan, and then connect an ammeter in the servo supply line, you have a sort of simple electronic scales. The scales can be calibrated using a reference weight, with the length of the arm set to produce a certain amount of current with a certain weight, such as 0. 5 A with 1 kg. Two kilograms would then draw 1 A, and so on. The scales can also generate a voltage out-put if you measure the voltage across a sense...

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