Class D amp made easy with 555 timer IC

This is a continuation of my previous article regarding class d amp using 555 timer chip. Looking back to several schematics on that article, some of you may wonder why I include another 555 as U2 in the drawing. The main purpose of this U2 is to establish constant frequency trigger on pin 2 of U1 in such a way of maintaining stable PWM carrier fr

equency during audio input modulation. By scrutinizing the behavior of the circuit in LT spice simulator, and listening to their sound thru the breadboard circuit layout, the sound is good and clean. Of course there are some interesting ways in doing this but the most interesting thing for me to satisfy my curiosity is to try to use U1 alone without the trigger U2 to conserve space and cost to the lowest value as possible. In this case, by feeding back the output pin 3 to the RC time network on pin 6 & 2 the resulting switching mode is astable with 50% duty cycle. I tried to apply music to pin 5 as usual but noticed a distorting sound even at lower volume settings. Fig. 1 Schematic of 555 circuit with negative FB added. Please take note that 2N3904 varies on their hfe depending on it`s production binning. So you may get different sound quality due to this variations. Better opt for opamp if you want. By implementing negative feedback thru the help of 2N3904 transistor to self bias it in a conventional way, (see fig. 1) the resulting sound was so good that it seems better than the sound produced by using 2 chips. Why Well, I don`t have specific answer for this question at the moment and by observing the behavior of the waveforms while the circuit is being modulated reveals a mixture of PWM and FM at the same time. It is quite surprising for me to hear a music in class d amp having a mixture of PWM with FM owing to the fact...

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