Engineering Physics Block-Stacking Robotics Project (2012)

The TINAH board shield, a printed circuit-board shield designed and built for Phys253 and first used in 2009 by Engineering Physics students and staff. The shield acts as a buffer  for protecting the digital and analog inputs and outputs of the Wiring board, and allowing for built-in functions. - Six analog inputs were used for QRD 1114 refle
Engineering Physics Block-Stacking Robotics Project (2012) - schematic

ctance sensors, with five of them being used for the robot`s ability to track the black tape. Five digital inputs were used for mechanical switches, for use in collision detection. Due to the TINAH board`s limited ability to provide current to attached devices, three motor-driver circuits were built to allow the TINAH to control the motor speeds and directions using Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM), while having the current provided by the battery source. These circuits, known as H-Bridges are comprised of high-current elements that allowed the motors to be driven at much higher powers than would be possible by using PWM outputs from the TINAH alone. By using 25A MOSFETs, the circuit shown below proved to be robust enough for the reliable operation of the robot. This sensor acts as a robotic eye  that produces infrared (IR) light, and varies its conductivity depending on the amount of infrared light that is reflected back to the phototransistor. Due to this, it is optimal in detecting the difference in the amount of reflected light between an object that is dark (black tape) and light (white wood). Unfortunately, this sensor is also very susceptible to interference from everything from natural light, 60 Hz (utility frequency) artificial sources and IR rangefinders on cameras. Due to this, the team created a housing to shield the sensors from these sources, to ensure the reliability of the tape-tracking algorithm. The batteries...

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