High And Low Voltage Cut Off With Time Delay

  
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The power line fluctuations and cut-offs cause damages to electrical appliances connected to the line. It is more serious in the case of domestic appliances like fridge and air conditioners. If a fridge is operated on low voltage, excessive current flows through the motor, which heats up, and get damaged. The under/over voltage protection circuit
High And Low Voltage Cut Off With Time Delay - schematic

with time delay presented here is a low cost and reliable circuit for protecting such equipments from damages. Whenever the power line is switched on it gets connected to the appliance only after a delay of a fixed time. If there is hi/low fluctuations beyond sets limits the appliance get disconnected. The system tries to connect the power back after the specific time delay, the delay being counted from the time of disconnection. If the power down time (time for which the voltage is beyond limits) is less than the delay time, the power resumes after the delay: If it is equal or more, then the power resumes directly. This circuit has been designed, built and evaluated by me to use as a protector for my home refrigerator. This is designed around readily available semi-conductor devices such as standard bipolar medium power NPN transistor (D313/SL100/C1061), an 8-pin type 741 op-amp and NE555 timer IC. Its salient feature is that no relay hunting is employed. This draw back is commonly found in the proctors available in the market. The complete circuit is consisting of various stages. They are: - Dual rail power supply, Reference voltage source, Voltage comparators for hi/low cut offs, Time delay stage and Relay driver stage. Lets now look at the step-by-step design details. This is a conventional type of power supply as shown in Figure 1. The power is applied through the step-down transformer (230/12-0-12V/500mA). The DC...



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