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The use of logic symbology results in a diagram that allows the user to determine the operation of a given component or system as the various input signals change. To read and interpret logic diagrams, the reader must understand what each of the specialized symbols represent. This chapter discusses the common symbols used on logic diagrams. When mastered,
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this knowledge should enable the reader to understand most logic diagrams. Facility operators and technical staff personnel commonly see logic symbols on equipment diagrams. The logic symbols, called gates, depict the operation/start/stop circuits of components and systems. The following two figures, which use a common facility start/stop pump circuit as an example, clearly demonstrate the reasons for learning to read logic diagrams. Figure 1 presents a schematic for a large pump, and Figure 2 shows the same pump circuit using only logic gates. It is obvious that when the basic logic symbols are understood, figuring out how the pump operates and how it will respond to various combinations of inputs using the logic diagram is fast and easy, as compared to laboriously tracing through the relays and contacts of the schematic diagram for the same information. There are three basic types of logic gates. They are AND, OR, and NOT gates. Each gate is a very simple device that only has two states, on and off. The states of a gate are also commonly referred to as high or low, 1 or 0, or True or False, where on = high = 1 = True, and off = low = 0 = False. The state of the gate, also referred to as its output, is determined by the status of the inputs to the gate, with each type of gate responding differently to the various possible combinations of inputs. Specifically, these combinations are as follows. Because the NOT gate is...



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