Long Range FM Transmitter

  
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The power output of many transmitter circuits are very low because no power amplifier stages are incorporated. The transmitter circuit described here has an extra RF power amplifier stage, after the oscillator stage, to raise the power output to 200-250 milliwatts. With a good matching 50-ohm ground plane antenna or multi-element Yagi antenna, thi
Long Range FM Transmitter - schematic

s transmitter can provide reasonably good signal strength up to a distance of about 2 kilometres. The circuit built around transistor T1 (BF494) is a basic low-power variable-frequency VHF oscillator. A varicap diode circuit is included to change the frequency of the transmitter and to provide frequency modulation by audio signals. The output of the oscillator is about 50 milliwatts. Transistor T2 (2N3866) forms a VHF-class A power amplifier. It boosts the oscillator signal power four to five times. Thus, 200-250 milliwatts of power is generated at the collector of transistor T2. For better results, assemble the circuit on a good-quality glass epoxy board and house the transmitter inside an aluminium case. Shield the oscillator stage using an aluminium sheet. Coil winding details are given below: Potentiometer VR1 is used to vary the fundamental frequency whereas potentiometer VR2 is used as power control. For hum-free operation, operate the transmitter on a 12V rechargeable battery pack of 10 x 1. 2-volt Ni-Cd cells. Transistor T2 must be mounted on a heat sink. Do not switch on the transmitter without a matching antenna. Adjust both trimmers (VC1 and VC2) for maximum transmission power. Adjust potentiometer VR1 to set the fundamental frequency near 100 MHz. WARNING: Transmitting on the UK Commercial FM band is also illegal in the UK, please see the general disclaimer. This circuit is shown for educational purposes only.



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