# Methods of frequency modulation

Posted on Feb 7, 2014

The circuit shown earlier in figure 2-6 and the discussion in previous paragraphs were for illustrative purposes only. In reality, such a circuit would not be practical. However, the basic principle involved (the change in reactance of an oscillator circuit in accordance with the modulating voltage) constitutes one of the methods of developing a f

In direct modulation, an oscillator is frequency modulated by a REACTANCE TUBE that is in parallel (SHUNT) with the oscillator tank circuit. (The terms "shunt" or "shunting" will be used in this module to mean the same as "parallel" or "to place in parallel with" components. ) This is illustrated in figure 2-11. The oscillator is a conventional Hartley circuit with the reactance-tube circuit in parallel with the tank circuit of the oscillator tube. The reactance tube is an ordinary pentode. It is made to act either capacitively or inductively; that is, its grid is excited with a voltage which either leads or lags the oscillator voltage by 90 degrees. When the reactance tube is connected across the tank circuit with no modulating voltage applied, it will affect the frequency of the oscillator. The voltage across the oscillator tank circuit (L1 and C1) is also in parallel with the series network of R1 and C7. This voltage causes a current flow through R1 and C7. If R1 is at least five times larger than the capacitive reactance of C7, this branch of the circuit will be essentially resistive. Voltage E1, which is across C7, will lag current by 90 degrees. E1 is applied to the control grid of reactance tube V1. This changes plate current (Ip), which essentially flows only through the LC tank circuit. This is because the value of R1 is high compared to the impedance of the tank circuit.

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