Schematic Diagram Basic Levitation and Magnetic Levitation Circuit Project

Posted on Feb 6, 2014

This optodetector measures the position of the ball by the amount of light transmitted by the infrared LED. This is a linear signal across the small area of the detector - it is not just `on` and `off`. This circuit creates a control signal from the two optodetectors. It finds the difference between the two input voltages and amplifies it to get

Schematic Diagram Basic Levitation and Magnetic Levitation Circuit Project
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the ball`s position. This stage is often called a comparator. This circuit amplifies the control signal in preparation for the power output transistor. Why do we need this stage at all Because we reduced the whole signal by one-ninth in the speed-plus-position circuit. The point of the perpetual top levitation toy is simply that it continues spinning forever, and the challenge is to understand the driving mechanism. The top is made of plastic, and contains embedded in it a small permanent magnet, oriented perpendicular to the spin axis of the top. The base contains a transistor and a coil with two windings, the assembly being driven by a 9-volt power supply. A schematic of the electrical circuit is shown in the figure. As one pole of the magnet (say the south pole) approaches the coil, a current in induced in winding A, in such a direction as to make the base of the transistor (an NPN) go positive. That makes the emitter-collector current flow through winding B, in the opposite direction to A. The current through B is larger than that of A (due to the amplification of the transistor), so by Lenz`s law the magnet pole will be attracted to the coil. This is a simple magnetic levitator circuit which suspends objects a set distance below an electromagnet. The physics behind it is to simply provide a magnetic force which equal and opposite to the gravitational force on the object. The two forces cancel and the object remains...

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