Sensor


Posted on Feb 5, 2014

The article `Creating a Line Follower Robot with AVR [Censorship]` is a continuation of Line Follower Robot article with a new AVR ATMega8535 samapai phase Line Follower Robot block diagram. In the article `Creating a Line Follower Robot with AVR Part 1 [Sensor]` This is a review of the sensor used on Line Follower Robot, and the components used.


Sensor
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Sensors, can be analogous to the `eye` of a robot that serves to `read` the black line of the track robot or vice versa. So that the robot is able to know when he will turn right, when he turned left and when he stopped. Sensors used are usually photo reflector, LDR (Light Dependent Resistor), Photo Diodes and Photo Transistor - mounted on the front two or more below the line follower robot. There also are using the camera as a sensor (or image sensor) to a higher-resolution readout line, making more accurate robot motion. The working principle of the sensor is simple, when the transmitter (infrared) emitting light onto a white field, the light will be reflected back to the receiver by the white areas and vice versa. This gives the change in the voltage level at the receiver output, but it usually changes the voltage can not be accepted as a TTL logic level. To be able to read by the microcontroller, the sensor voltage should be adjusted to TTL voltage level that is 0-1 volts for logic 0 and 3-5 volts for logic 1. This can be done by installing the operational amplifier is used as a comparator as shown in the picture above. Op Amp is used as a comparator LM324 IC, because IC is able to work at VCC 5 volt range and there are 4 in 1 Op Amp IC corresponding to the number of sensors are used. The sensitivity of this sensor can be set through R9 which controls the comparator reference point. Line follower robot sensors can be...




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