Ultrasonic Sensor Circuit

This Ultrasonic Sensor Circuit consists of a set of ultrasonic receiver and transmitter which operate at the same frequency. When something moves in the area covered the circuit`s fine balance is disturbed and the alarm is triggered. The ultrasonic circuit is very sensitive and can be adjusted to reset itself automatically or to stay triggered til
Ultrasonic Sensor Circuit - schematic

l it is reset manually after an alarm. The ultra sonic transmitter is built around two NAND gates wired as inverters and they form a multivibrator the output of which drives the transducer. The trimmer P2 adjusts the output frequency of the transmitter and for greater efficiency it should be made the same as the frequency of resonance of the transducers in use. The ultrasonic receiver uses a transducer to receive the signals that are reflected back to it the output of which is amplified by the transistor TR3, and IC1 which is a 741 op-amp. The output of IC1 is taken to the non inverting input of IC2 the amplification factor of which is adjusted by means of P1. The ultra sonic circuit is adjusted in such a way as to stay in balance as long the same as the output frequency of the transmitter. If there is some movement in the area covered by the ultrasonic emission the signal that is reflected back to the receiver becomes distorted and the circuit is thrown out of balance. The circuit works from 9-12 VDC and can be used with batteries or a power supply. The board is made of a thin insulating material clad with a thin layer of conductive copper that is shaped in such a way as to form the necessary conductors between the various components of the circuit. The use of a properly designed printed circuit board is very desirable as it speeds construction up considerably and reduces the possibility of making errors. In order to...

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