homemade solar mppt circuit maximum

MPPT stands for maximum power point tracker, which is anelectronic system designed for optimizing the varying power output from a solar panel module such that the connected battery exploits the maximum available power from the solar panel. We know that the output from a solar panel is directly proportional to the degree of the incident sunlight, and also the ambient temperature.
homemade solar mppt circuit maximum - schematic

When the sun rays are perpendicular to the solar panel, it generates the maximum amount of voltage, and deteriorates as the angle shifts away from 90degrees The atmospheric temperature around the panel also affects the efficiency of the panel, which falls with increase in the temperature. Therefore we may conclude that when the sun rays are near to 90degreesover the panel and when thetemperatureis around 30 degrees, the efficiency of the panel is toward maximum, the ratedecreasesas the above two parameters drift away from their rated values. The above voltage is generally used for charging a battery, a lead acid battery, which in turn is used for operating an inverter. However just as the solar panel has its own operating criteria, the battery too is no less andofferssome strict conditions for getting optimally charged. The conditions are, the battery must be charged at relatively higher currentinitiallywhich must be gradually decreased to almost zero when the battery attains a voltage 15% higher than its normal rating. Assuming a fully discharged 12V battery, with a voltage anywhere around 11. 5V, may be charged at around C/2 rate initially (C=AH of the battery), this will stat filling the battery relatively quickly and will pull its voltage to may be around 13V within a couple of hours. At this point the current should be automatically reduced to say C/5 rate, this will again help to keep the fast charging...

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