using a multimeter

Posted on Feb 7, 2014

A meter is a measuring instrument. An ammeter measures current, a voltmeter measures the potential difference (voltage) between two points, and an ohmmeter measures resistance. A multimeter combines these functions, and possibly some additional ones as well, into a single instrument. Before going in to detail about multimeters, it is important for

using a multimeter
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you to have a clear idea of how meters are connected into circuits. Diagrams A and B below show a circuit before and after connecting an ammeter: Think about the changes you would have to make to a practical circuit in order to include the ammeter. To start with, you need to break the circuit so that the ammeter can be connected in series. All the current flowing in the circuit must pass through the ammeter. Meters are not supposed to alter the behaviour of the circuit, or at least not significantly, and it follows that an ammeter must have a very LOW resistance. This time, you do not need to break the circuit. The voltmeter is connected in parallel between the two points where the measurement is to be made. Since the voltmeter provides a parallel pathway, it should take as little current as possible. In other words, a voltmeter should have a very HIGH resistance. The processing of electronic signals is usually thought of in voltage terms. It is an added advantage that a voltage measurement is easier to make. The orginal circuit does not need to be changed. Often, the meter probes are connected simply by touching them to the points of interest. An ohmmeter does not function with a circuit connected to a power supply. If you want to measure the resistance of a particular component, you must take it out of the circuit altogether and test it separately, as shown in diagram D: Ohmmeters work by passing a small current through...

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