Vacuum Tubes Valves
Musical & effects
Yagi Uda Antennas
Metal Detector Circuits
Liquid Sensing Circuits
Light Sensing Circuits
Voltage Detector Circuits
Air-Gas Detection Circuits
Human Sensing Circuits
RF & Radiation
Optical Sensing Circuits
Free Energy Circuits
AC to DC & DC to DC
Solar Cell Circuits
Micro Power Circuits
Switching Power Supplies
Light Laser LED
Digital to Analog
Analog to Digital
Data Bus Circuits
Voltage to Pulse
Current to Voltage
Frequency to Voltage
RF Converter Circuits
Sine to Square Wave
Voltage to Current
voltage to frequency
Period to Voltage
Video Wall circuits
TV Video Circuits
Motor Control Circuits
8051 / 8052
PCB CAD Software
Car bike Circuits
555 Timer Circuits
Remote Control Toy
H Bridge Circuit
Interconnection & Timing
Digital Signal Integrity
Digital & Bipolars
Sensors & Detectors
Regulated Power Supply
4 Band Resistor
5 Band resistor
6 Band resistor
Voltage to Pulse Circuits
Current to Voltage Circuits
Frequency to Voltage Circuits
RF Converter Circuits
Sine to Square Wave Circuits
Voltage to Current Circuits
Voltage to Frequency Circuits
Period to Voltage Circuits
Buck power conversion by the MAX639 + 5V fixed output
As shown in FIG constituted by MAX639 + 5V fixed output buck power conversion. MAX639 is a high-efficiency, step-down DC/DC converter. Input voltage range of 5.5V to 11.5V, the
D A conversion frequency generator complementary bipolar
As shown in FIG, AD7520 is a CMOS type integrated circuit DAC over 10 channel, may be provided with l0 N-bit digital output proportional to the input current Io1, it offers the
Comparison of various circuit diagram VI conversion and a constant current source
As shown, the circuit can get several constant current output to the load resistor RL. Since the first RL floating, rarely used. The second RL is a virtual ground, do not often
XTR110 voltage - current converter circuit diagram
As shown, when the output current exceeds 40mA when, XTR110 internal 50 resistor (R9) on the need to use an external resistor REXT instead, REXT connected between 13 feet and 1
The sound of a photoelectric conversion circuit
Circuit works as follows: The electrical circuit is a light, a light electric sound conversion circuit with two simple fiber optic connector for experimental play is shown. f W
Current-to-Voltage Converter II
This current to voltage converter rely on the very high input impedance of the operational amplifier. The input current (I) is forced through feedback resistor (Rf), and generates an output voltage equal to (-I x Rf). This output voltage is valid for output voltages from rail to rail, namely from -5 to +5 volts in this example.
+/- 1Volt Current-to-Voltage Converter
This current to voltage converter rely on the very high input impedance of the operational amplifier. The input current (I) is forced through feedback resistor (Rf), and generates an output voltage equal to (-I x Rf).
555 voltage-to-time converter
The circuit in Figure 1 is a simple, low-cost voltage-to-time converter using the ubiquitous 555 timer chip. You can use the IC`s monostable multivibrator as a voltage-to-time converter by connecting the analog-voltage input to the charging resistor, R, instead of connecting R to VCC. With this modification, the timer chip`s output-timing cycle,...
Circuit converts pulse width to voltage
The circuit in Figure 1 converts pulse information to a clean dc voltage by the end of a single incoming pulse. In another technique, an RC filter can convert a PWM signal to an averaged dc voltage, but this method is slow in responding. Converting low-duty-cycle pulse information is slower yet.
Sine to Square wave Converter
This circuit is intended to provide good square waves converting a sine wave picked-up from an existing generator. Its main feature consists in the fact that no power-source is needed: thus it can be simply connected between a sine wave generator and the device under test.
Time-tag impulses & zero-crossing
Figure 1 shows the typical output from a spectroscopic amplifier, where the presence of a large amount of detector noise with Gaussian distribution is a limiting factor for system performance in amplitude and timing resolution. The time-tagging of such pulses is subject to two well-known types of errors: the jitter related to the noise and the...
Zero crossing Detector
This Circuit is a zero crossing detector, which produces an output state change whenever the input crosses the reference input. In this case the reference input is connected to ground. The output of the comparator can easily drive multiple outputs, which can include, for example, a relay, acontrol gate and a LED indicator.
Tune six metres on your two metre receiver
This converter allows reception of six metre signals on a two metre receiver. It should therefore be useful for those with single or dual band sets that do not cover 50 MHz.
classic V/I converter
Figure 1 shows a classic voltage-to-current (V/I) converter. You can select the resistor values such that the output current in the load, RL, varies only with the input voltage, VIN, and is independent of RL. The circuit is widely used in industrial instruments for supplying a 4- to 20-mA signal. The circuit has its limitations, however, because...
The voltage-to-current converter in Figure 1 can both source and sink current. The circuit is more flexible than some traditional current references that require different topologies for current sourcing and sinking. Also, you can easily adjust the value of the current reference by simply adjusting the circuit`s input voltage.
V/I converter accommodates grounded load
The voltage-to-current (V/I) converter in Figure 1 uses three common op amps, two medium-power transistors, and only a few passive components. The first op amp (IC1) inverts the sum of voltages VIN and VOUT to V1=-(VIN+VOUT). The second op amp (IC2) and transistors Q1 and Q2 invert this voltage to produce VIN+VOUT.
Voltage-to-current converter II
The circuit in Figure 1 performs active voltage-to-current conversion or acts as a variable-gain current mirror with high precision and bandwidth. A typical application is testing high-speed ICs or other devices that have inputs designed to be driven from current-steering DACs to enable a modulated voltage source to control the devices. The...
Bidirectional VF Control
Single-phase induction motors are extensively used in appliances and industrial controls. The Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) single-phase induction motor is the simplest and most widely used motor of this type. The classification, construction and working principle of single-phase induction motors are explained in detail in the application note...
Inverters form three-phase VCO
The inspiration for the VCO in Figure 1 came from Texas Instruments application notes of years ago, detailing the use of unbuffered U-type inverters for use in ring oscillators. The application notes circuit consists of only the inverters. The circuit generates relatively squarish waveforms. Any ring oscillators operation depends on the...
VCO produces output frequencies
The circuit in Figure 1 is a quadrature-output VCO that provides both positive and negative output frequencies, depending on the polarity of the control-voltage input. The circuit provides a function that designers traditionally implement in analog music-effects units, such as Bode/Moog frequency shifters. Bode/Moog shifters use...
Voltage Controlled Panner
This circuit is used to convert a mono audio signal into a stereo signal that can be panned between the left and right channel by a 0-10V control signal, it is intended for analog synthesizer systems. The circuit is mainly here for historical reasons, a higher quality panner may be built with the National Semiconductor LM13700 dual...
programmable logic VCO
A VCO (voltage-controlled oscillator) is an analog circuit, so you cannot find it in the libraries for the design of digital programmable chips. When you need such a circuit for synchronization or clock multiplication, you need to find a circuit that works with the standard digital functions, such as AND and NAND. Several possibilities exist for...
PIC controlled DDS VFO
This is a 0 - 6 MHz DDS VFO controlled by a PIC16F84 (or `C84). The VFO is separated into two modules, the DDS module and the controller module. The PCB layout (double sided) for the DDS module is included as two Postscript files (scale 1:1). The .PS files can be copied to a Postscript capable printer such as HP LaserJet 4MP. Please note...
Multilayer capacitor doubles as varactor
The circuit is also an inexpensive VCO (voltage-controlled oscillator) with only five components. Many types of ceramic capacitors for surface-mount placement are on the market. The parts become continually smaller because of space problems on the board, and the capacitance values continually increase to compete with more expensive...
High Performance V to F converter
No Description available.
DPP adds versatility to VFC
The basic VFC (voltage-to-frequency converter) in Figure 1 comprises an integrator (IC1) and a Schmitt-trigger circuit (IC2). The integrator converts the dc input voltage, VIN, to a linear voltage ramp, and the Schmitt trigger sets the limits of the integrator`s output voltage. Feedback around both circuits provides the condition for...
Simple DC to 20 MHz Driver
The output cable from my 20 MHz function/sweep generator dangled over the side of the workbench, the alligator clip hovering over the floor. Deeply engrossed in a project, I moved the power strip on the floor a little closer so I could plug in the circuit upon which I was working. That's when the alligator clip contacted the 240 VAC. The...
10MHZ to 1MHz converter
This circuit is an oscillator at frequency 10MHZ, using IC 1A and IC1B and a frequency divider. Using the IC2 it divides the pulses to 10. IC1C is a buffer. The variable capacitor 39pF is microtunig the frequency . The pin 12 of the IC2 is the output, where we can have the 1 MHz . The circuit does not need any adjustments to work.
Automatic Gain Control ( AGC )
This project is a digital Automatic Gain Control (AGC”) system using a PIC16F876 MCU. The ability to set the gain level in a circuit and have it control itself is a very useful function. This circuit is a building block of another project I am working on. A 30W power amp for either the PCS, iDEN or CDMA frequency bands. I will settle on one of...
500kHz to 4 MHz Converter
This converter allows reception of signals below 500 kHz on a 3.5 ? 4 MHz HF receiver. It should therefore be useful for those with receivers that do not receive the lower frequencies. Again the converter uses the popular NE602 mixer/oscillator chip. A cheap 4 MHz crystal provides the local oscillator tuning. Note that tuning is backwards ? 100...
cto frequency converter
In some cases of temperature measurements, it is more advantageous to convert the measured value into a frequency than into a voltage. A temperature to frequency converter can be directly connected to a frequency counter or it can be connected to a computer without using any A/D interface to display the measured value. The conversion factor of the
Thermal Watt Converter Test Circuit Schematic
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
Digital Signal Integrity
Interconnection and Timing of Digital Circuits
CMOS Circuits Tutorial