Vacuum Tubes Valves
Musical & effects
Yagi Uda Antennas
Metal Detector Circuits
Liquid Sensing Circuits
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Human Sensing Circuits
RF & Radiation
Optical Sensing Circuits
Free Energy Circuits
AC to DC & DC to DC
Solar Cell Circuits
Micro Power Circuits
Switching Power Supplies
Light Laser LED
Digital to Analog
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Data Bus Circuits
Voltage to Pulse
Current to Voltage
Frequency to Voltage
RF Converter Circuits
Sine to Square Wave
Voltage to Current
voltage to frequency
Period to Voltage
Video Wall circuits
TV Video Circuits
Motor Control Circuits
8051 / 8052
PCB CAD Software
Car bike Circuits
555 Timer Circuits
Remote Control Toy
H Bridge Circuit
DIY HV Variable Cap
DIY PMA alternator
Interconnection & Timing
Digital Signal Integrity
Digital & Bipolars
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Regulated Power Supply
4 Band Resistor
5 Band resistor
6 Band resistor
Voltage to Current Circuits
Voltage to Current Circuits
A simple voltage-to-current converter is shown in the figure. The current out is 0t or Vjn/R. For negative currents, a pnp can be used and, for better accuracy, a Darlington pah-can be substituted for the transistor. With careful design, this circuit can be used to control currents of many amps.
The current out is Iqutâ€”Vin/R. For negative currents, a PNP can be used and, for better accuracy,-a Darlington pair can be substituted for the transistor. With careful design, this circuit can be used to control currents of many amps
This 5-V circuit utilizes a servo-controlled dc/dc converter to generate the compliance voltage necessary for loop-
Power-Saving Intermittent Converter
This circuit switches its dc/dc converter, IC1, off whenever the large filter capacitor, C6, has suffic
classic V/I converter
Figure 1 shows a classic voltage-to-current (V/I) converter. You can select the resistor values such that the output current in the load, RL, varies only with the input voltage, VIN, and is independent of RL. The circuit is widely used in industrial instruments for supplying a 4- to 20-mA signal. The circuit has its limitations, however, because...
The voltage-to-current converter in Figure 1 can both source and sink current. The circuit is more flexible than some traditional current references that require different topologies for current sourcing and sinking. Also, you can easily adjust the value of the current reference by simply adjusting the circuit`s input voltage.
V/I converter accommodates grounded load
The voltage-to-current (V/I) converter in Figure 1 uses three common op amps, two medium-power transistors, and only a few passive components. The first op amp (IC1) inverts the sum of voltages VIN and VOUT to V1=-(VIN+VOUT). The second op amp (IC2) and transistors Q1 and Q2 invert this voltage to produce VIN+VOUT.
Voltage-to-current converter II
The circuit in Figure 1 performs active voltage-to-current conversion or acts as a variable-gain current mirror with high precision and bandwidth. A typical application is testing high-speed ICs or other devices that have inputs designed to be driven from current-steering DACs to enable a modulated voltage source to control the devices. The...
voltage to current convertor
his Circuit converts a voltage control output from a Process Controller to be converted into a Current Control if the AC-Drive or Valve needs a Current Control Signal. This is a three wire voltage to current loop converter. The 1-5 V DC is attenuated and fed to pin 5 LM723 opamp section which tries to maintain the same voltage at pin 10 across the
VOLTAGE TO CURRENT CONVERTER
This voltage to current converter uses three op amps to drive a pair of power transistors. The current output is calculated as: IOUT=Vin/R6 Output resistance is over 50 M?. IOUT can range from 1 mA to the current ratings of T1 and T2..
XTR110 Voltage-Current Converter
As shown in the picture, when the output current exceeds 40mA the internal resistance 50? in the XTR110 (R9) should be replaced by external resistance REXT. REXT is connected between the 13 foot and 16 foot. REXY=R9(original span/required span). For example, the XTR110 in the picture`s original span is 20mA and now the required span is 10A. If...
Zero-voltage zero-current switch three-level DC converter
In order to remove circulating current of zero-voltage switch three-level DC converter in zero state, we come up with kind of zero-voltage zero-current switch three-level DC converter circuit. The circuit is shown in the following diagram 1, the main difference between this circuit and zero-voltage switch three-level DC converter is: add...
Voltage to Pulse Circuits
Current to Voltage Circuits
Frequency to Voltage Circuits
RF Converter Circuits
Sine to Square Wave Circuits
Voltage to Frequency Circuits
Period to Voltage Circuits
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
DIY HV Variable Capacitor
DIY PMA Alternator Plans
Digital Signal Integrity