Voltage-to-frequency converter

The D169 serves as a level detector and provides complementary outputs. The op amp is used to integrate the input signal Vin with a time constant of R1C1. The input (must be negative) causes a positive ramp at the output of the integrator which is summed with a negative zener voltage. When the ramp is positive enough D169 outputs change state and OUT 2 flips from negative to positive
Voltage-to-frequency converter - schematic

The output pulse repetition rate £>, is directly proportioned to the negative input voltage Vin.

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