Auto ON-OFF lights

An ordinary automatic room power control circuit has only one light sensor. So when a person enters the room it gets one pulse and the lights come on. When the person goes out it gets another pulse and the lights go off. But what happens when two persons enter the room, one after the other? It gets two pulses and the lights remain in off state. The circuit described here overcomes the above-mentioned problem. It has a small memory which enables it to automatically switch on and switch off the lights in a desired fashion.
Auto ON-OFF lights - schematic

The circuit uses two LDRs which are placed one after another (separated by a distance of say half a metre) so that they may separately sense a person going into the room or coming out of the room. Outputs of the two LDR sensors, after processing, are used in conjunction with a bicolour LED in such a fashion that when a person gets into the room it emits green light and when a person goes out of the room it emits red light, and vice versa. These outputs are simultaneously applied to two counters. One of the counters will count as +1, +2, +3 etc when persons are getting into the room and the other will count as -1, -2, -3 etc when persons are getting out of the room. These counters make use of Johnson decade counter CD4017 ICs. The next stage comprises two logic ICs which can combine the outputs of the two counters and determine if there is any person still left in the room or not. Since in the circuit LDRs have been used, care should be taken to protect them from ambient light. If desired, one may use readily available IR sensor modules to replace the LDRs. The sensors are installed in such a way that when a person enters or leaves the room, he intercepts the light falling on them sequentially one after the other. When a person enters the room, first he would obstruct the light falling on LDR1, followed by that falling on LDR2. When a person leaves the room it will be the other way round. In the normal case light keeps...

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