Vacuum Tubes Valves
Musical & effects
Yagi Uda Antennas
Metal Detector Circuits
Liquid Sensing Circuits
Light Sensing Circuits
Voltage Detector Circuits
Air-Gas Detection Circuits
Human Sensing Circuits
RF & Radiation
Optical Sensing Circuits
Free Energy Circuits
AC to DC & DC to DC
Solar Cell Circuits
Micro Power Circuits
Switching Power Supplies
Light Laser LED
Digital to Analog
Analog to Digital
Data Bus Circuits
Voltage to Pulse
Current to Voltage
Frequency to Voltage
RF Converter Circuits
Sine to Square Wave
Voltage to Current
voltage to frequency
Period to Voltage
Video Wall circuits
TV Video Circuits
Motor Control Circuits
8051 / 8052
PCB CAD Software
Car bike Circuits
555 Timer Circuits
Remote Control Toy
H Bridge Circuit
Interconnection & Timing
Digital Signal Integrity
Digital & Bipolars
Sensors & Detectors
Regulated Power Supply
4 Band Resistor
5 Band resistor
6 Band resistor
Light Laser LED Circuits
Low loss brightness control
This circuit changes the average value of the dc supply voltage because of the high switching frequency. The tungsten lamp will have an almost continuous adjustable light output between 0 and 100%
Half wave AC phase-controlled circuit
The 5AH will trigger when the voltage across the two 0 juF capacitors reaches the breakdown voltage of the lamp. Control can be obtained full off to 95% of the half wave RMS output voltage
This simple circuit providers battery operated emergency lighting instantaneously upon failure of the regular ac service. When line power is restored, the emergency light turns off and the battery recharges automatically. The circuit is ideal for use in elevator cars, corridors and similar places where loss of light due to power failure would be...
Complementary AC power switching
An input signal of less than 1 mA and 1V is required to switch on CS1. As long as this input -signal is maintained, CS1 will conduct during each positive half cycle of anode voltage, thereby energizing load LI with half-wave rectified dc. L2 remains de-energized, since the anode of CS1 will not go more positive than 1 volts, and voltage divider...
The shift pulse amplitude is less than 15 volts. If a stage is off, the shift pulse will not be coupled to the next stage. If it is on, the diode will conduct and trigger the next stage. Just prior to the shift pulse the anode supply is interrupted to tum off all stages
Linear light-meter circuit
This circuit uses a low-input-bias op amp to give a steady dc indication of light level. To reduce circuit sensitivity to light, Rl can be reduced, but should not be less than 100 K
Logarithmic light-meter circuit
The meter reading is directlyjproportiona! to the logarithm of the input light power. The logarithmic circuit behavior arises from the nonlineardiode pnjunction current/voltage relationship
This counter uses a four-digit display, but with a flip of the range switch, it can display frequencies from 1 to 40 MHz, with a resolution of 100Hz. The MM74C926 CMOS IC contains a four-digit decimal counter that can latch a given count and then use this information to drive a 7 -segment, common-cathode multiplexed (MUX) display. The block...
The circuit consists of ICM7208 seven-decade counter U1, ICM7207A oscillator controller U2, and CA3130 biFET op amp U3. IC U1 counts input signals, decodes them to 7-segment format, and outputs signals that are used to drive a 7-digit display. IC U2 provides the timing for U1, while U3 conditions the input to Ul. The 5.24288-MHz crystal...
This CMOS circuit can be used as a 1-shot time delay switch and general-purpose timer. The circuit consists of a gated oscillator and a latch made from one CD4001 quad 2-input NOR gate as shown and a CD4020 14-stage counter. TON is a function of the oscillator frequency from the RxCx and the proper zN output from the counter. A pulse applied...
This circuit can be used to measure frequencies up to 40 MHz. To obtain the correct measured value, it is necessary to divide the oscillator frequency and the input frequency by four.
By using the preamplifier with a short length of shielded cable and clip leads, signals that generally could not generate a readout, generate precise and stable readouts on the counter. The DPDT switch is used to bypass the circuit when amplification is not needed. The preamplifier can also be used for other purposes. For example, the unit...
The output of the CA3179 is fed through the Dl!Q1 circuit. Those components serve to boost the 1-V output of the CA3179 to a standard TTL level. Then, depending on the position of range switch S2b, the signal is passed directly to the 7216, or through the divide-by-four circuit built from the two D flip-flops in IC3. The other half of the...
Opening SA, changes the indicator lamp from flashing to steady-lit condition. The 6-V incandescent lamp on the collector of Q2 requires about 0.3 A. A 1-KO load resistor limits Ql"s collector current to about 6 mA.
The circuit is built around two power FETs, which are configured as a simple astable multivibrator to alternately switch the two lamps on and off. The rc values given sets the flash rate to about 1/3 Hz. By varying either the resistor or capacitor values, almost any flash rate can be obtained. Increase either Cl and C2, or Rl and R2, and...
This circuit is suitable for fitting into slide projectors without a dimmer facility as witb 24-Vac fed halogen lamps. With a few small alterations, it can also be used for dimming 12-V halogen lamps, but not those in a car, because these are fed from a de source. The circuit shown in Fig. 50-1a is intended for operation from a 24-Vac supply,...
This pseudorandom sequencer drives a solid-state relay. If you power a low-wattage lamp from the relay, the lamp will appear to flicker like a candle"s flame in the wind; using higher-wattage lamps allows you to simulate the blaze of a fireplace or campfire. You can enhance the effect by using three or more such circuits to power an array of...
The lights seem to dance in time with the music. Line-voltage lamps of about 40 to 100 W do nicely. The current for the lamp is from an SCR. When low-level audio is present across Tl, SCR1 is not triggered into conduction. A louder signal, however, triggers the SCR so that the lamp lights and follows the sounds.
Lamp life can be extended by improving the conditions under which its filament is operated. This includes eliminating the inrush overcurrent surge and reduclog the mechanical stress (vibration) on the filament caused by an ac source. The circuit shown controls the inrush current to the lamp without the 10 to 15 times-rated current stage...
This circuit uses a PUT for phases control of an SCR. The relaxation oscillator formed by Q2 provides conduction control of Ql from 1 to 7.8 ms or 21.6Â° to 168.5Â°. This constitutes control of over 97% of the power available to the load.
The dimming action is controlled by varying the amount of current passed through triac Q4 and, thus, the lamp plugged into ac receptacle SOL Unijunction transistor Q3 operates as a relaxation oscillator whose output pulse frequency depends on how fast capacitor C2 recharges after firing. Transistors Ql and Q2 furnish the charging current,...
At half brightness, the lamp current is pulsed on and off (Fig. 50-12b) by the voltage developed across the resistor and capacitor at the current-sense output. Lamp current is sensed by the current-sense output. A simple pulse-width modulation lamp-brightness control circuit can also be built with the device. When the device powers up, the...
A 1-V amplitude pulse triggers SCSl, but has insufficient amplitude to trigger SCS2. A 3-V input pulse is delayed in reaching SCSl by the 10-KO and .001-!"F integrating network. Instead, it triggers SCS2, then raises the common emitter voltage to prevent SCSI from triggering.
Flip-Flop Independent Lamp Driver
Assume first that SCR1 is on and SCR2 is off so that CI is fully charged, with its LMP2 end positive. The
Three-Way Touch Lamp
A three-way switch to control a lamp (off-dim-bright, etc.) uses an NE555 timer to generate a one-second pulse, trigge
Automatic Emergency Lighting Unit
This unit uses a Nicad battery to provide power to an emergency lighting setup. When power fails, T1 beco
3-Way Light Control
This hookup is useful in some house wiring situations, where only two wires are available between switches, rather than
"Automatic" Light Bulb Changer
The circuit presented here guarantees that if bulb Lai "gives up the ghost," bulb La2 will take over its tas
Scr Capacitor Turn-Off Circuit
After the SCR turns on, CI charges up to almost the full supply voltage via R3 and the anode of the SCR. Whe
3 Channel Color Organ Circuit
The ac line power is brought back into the circuit through Fl, a protective 5-A fuse. One side of the ac line is connected to one side of each ac outlet. The other side of the ac line is connected to each SGR or silicon-controlled rectifier. Each SCR is, in turn, connected to the other side of each ac outlet.An audio signal is brought into the...
Automatic Porch-Light Control Circuit
The automatic porch-light control circuit holds a triac on until a 4020 divider counts a number of 60-Hz powerlinc pulses. The circuit turns off a light after a predetermined time by using pins other than pin 3 of III. Various times can be set.
120Ac Shimmering Light Circuit
You can turn any ordinary household bulb into one that shimmers or blinks. This circuit works on any incandescent light up to 200 W, arid runs on standard 120 Vac. The circuit uses an SCR to cause an ordinary lamp to sliimmer. Note that one side of the lamp is connected directly to 120 Vac, and the other side of the lamp goes to the cathode of...
Light Sensing Circuits
Light Dimmer Circuits
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
Digital Signal Integrity
Interconnection and Timing of Digital Circuits
CMOS Circuits Tutorial