Vacuum Tubes Valves
Musical & effects
Yagi Uda Antennas
Metal Detector Circuits
Liquid Sensing Circuits
Light Sensing Circuits
Voltage Detector Circuits
Air-Gas Detection Circuits
Human Sensing Circuits
RF & Radiation
Optical Sensing Circuits
Free Energy Circuits
AC to DC & DC to DC
Solar Cell Circuits
Micro Power Circuits
Switching Power Supplies
Light Laser LED
Digital to Analog
Analog to Digital
Data Bus Circuits
Voltage to Pulse
Current to Voltage
Frequency to Voltage
RF Converter Circuits
Sine to Square Wave
Voltage to Current
voltage to frequency
Period to Voltage
Video Wall circuits
TV Video Circuits
Motor Control Circuits
8051 / 8052
PCB CAD Software
Car bike Circuits
555 Timer Circuits
Remote Control Toy
H Bridge Circuit
Interconnection & Timing
Digital Signal Integrity
Digital & Bipolars
Sensors & Detectors
Regulated Power Supply
4 Band Resistor
5 Band resistor
6 Band resistor
Light Laser LED Circuits
Light Laser LED Circuits
Light Sensing Circuits
Light Dimmer Circuits
Strobe light 115 AC
The way that this circuit works is as follows. The AC line voltage is rectified by D1 and D2 which connects to a voltage doubler circuit made up of the two 22uf capacitors. The Flash Freq. Pot and the 10uf capacitor charge up which triggers the Diac and causes the triac to turn on. This allows the trigger transformer T1 to send a very High...
Nite Rider LED Lights
IC4, C1, R1 and R2 are used for the clock pulse which is fed to both the counters IC2 and IC3 Pin 14. IC1 is a Flip Flop and is used as a switch to enable ether IC2 or IC3 at pin 13. IC7a detects when ether IC2 or IC3 has reached Q9 of the counter pin 11. IC5, IC6 and IC7a protects the outputs of the counters IC2 and IC3 using OR gates which is...
Color Organ schematic
The basic idea of the project is to make different colored bulbs light at different frequencies of music. The circuit connects to the speaker outputs of your stereo or to the back of your speaker. The music passes through the transformer and the volume level is adjusted by the 5k ohm pot. Each light bulb is turn on by a different frequency of...
Infrared motion detector
The GLMDA is designed to detect the motion of a human or animal both in daylight and at night and to provide a normally open relay output that can be used to activate many types of loads. The GLMDA also has terminals for connecting an optional photocell to prevent activation of the load during daylight.
Infrared range finder
A rangefinder is described that uses the propagation time of a beam of infrared radiation to measure distances of up to 120 meters with errors of less than 50 µm. The instrument is capable of measuring up to five different distances per second by directing an amplitude modulated infrared beam to a retroreflector located at the far end of each...
Christmas Star with LEDs
Using a PC parallel port to control external devices is a popular approach these days but I certainly couldn’t afford to tie up a PC for the few weeks leading up to Christmas just to flash a few LEDs! Not to mention the power bill! So, why not use a small microcontroller? They are cheap and easy to use and if the design doesn’t work first time...
Music to light modulator circuit
A music-to-light modulator is a circuit which controls the intensity of one or more lights in response to an audio input. The problem in older circuits is that there was a direct electrical connection between the lights using mains voltages (110 to 250V AC) and the amplifier circuit low 9 to 12 voltage levels. Any fault in the high voltage...
Light/dark relay switch
This kit is the most basic, practical circuit to build using an LDR to turn on a relay. The two transistors connected as a Darlington pair give the circuit enough sensitivity, while the trimpot give sensitivity adjustment. The switching point of the relay is dependent on the supply voltage and temperature. This circuit is satisfactory if...
Touch Switch illuminates LED
Our circuit is amplifying the current flowing through your finger (when it touches the touch plate) 10,000 times and this is sufficient to illuminate the LED. The current flowing through your finger (when touching the touch plate) is only a few microamps and this is not enough to illuminated the Light Emitting Diode (LED). We need an amplifier...
12 Volt Fluorescent inverter for 20 - 40 Watt tubes
This is a low-cost project for 20 or 40 watt fluorescent tubes. However the most efficient is to use a 40 watt tube (or two 20 watt tubes in series). It's a circuit you can put together from junk box components or build from a kit. It's very simple to build and requires no printed circuit board. The transformer is hand-wound on a ferrite rod...
Sun Light Chaser
With RFT illuminated, point R goes to 0 volt and LM runs. With LFT illuminated, point R goes to 0 volt and RM runs. With RFT and/or LFT not illuminated, points R/L go to +9 volt; P1 and P2 controls threshold point when RM/LM stop or start running. Remember to seperate FT1 and FT2 with a vertical cardboard wall in order to produce a shadow over...
Digital lighting controler PIC16F870
This unit recieves DMX 512 data and Analogue (0- 10v) data and uses these to phase angle control mains output. Features: DMX 512 data Input. Analogue (0- 10v )DC Input. 4 Output channels. Remotley programmable Interally saved Presets. 3 Modes of operation Digital Lighting Data, Aanlogue Lighting Data and Internal Presets. 3 Dimming Curves (...
Helium Neon Laser Power Supply
The first 5 circuits described in the following sections were reverse engineered from commercial HeNe power supplies. There may be errors in transcription as well as interpretation. In many cases, the transformer secondary voltage was not marked and where the actual hardware was not available for testing, an estimate of its value was made....
RS-232 Laser Transciever circuit
Laser based projects used to be expensive, until the development of solid state lasers. This project is designed for the entry level laser experimenter. The circuit allows any two computers with serial (RS-232) communication capability to communicate over 200 meters using a laser beam. A low cost transmitter only circuit is also presented here...
Infrared Audio TX/RX
Using this low-cost project one can reproduce audio from TV without disturbing others. It does not use any wire connection between TV and headphones. In place of a pair of wires, it uses invisible infrared light to transmit audio signals from TV to headphones. Without using any lens, a range of up to 6 metres is possible. Range can be extended...
Dancing LED's circuit
Here is a simple circuit which can be used for decoration purposes or as an indicator. Flashing or dancing speed of LEDs can be adjusted and various dancing patterns of lights can be formed. The circuit consists of two astable multivibrators. One multivibrator is formed by transistors T1 and T2 while the other astable multivibrator is formed by...
Automatic Dual output Bulb Display
This circuit lights up ten bulbs sequentially, first in one direc- tion and then in the opposite direction, thus presenting a nice visual effect. In this circuit, gates N1 and N2 form an oscillator. The output of this oscillator is used as a clock for BCD up/down counter CD4510 (IC2). Depending on the logic state at its pin 10, the counter...
Emergency Lighting circuit
The circuit of automatic emergency light presented here has the following features: 1. When the mains supply (230V AC) is available, it charges a 12V battery up to 13.5V and then the battery is disconnected from the charging section. 2. When the battery discharges up to 10.2V, it is disconnected from the load and the charging process is resumed....
Auto ON-OFF lights
An ordinary automatic room power control circuit has only one light sensor. So when a person enters the room it gets one pulse and the lights come on. When the person goes out it gets another pulse and the lights go off. But what happens when two persons enter the room, one after the other? It gets two pulses and the lights remain in off state....
LED Running message Board CD4017
Light emitting diodes are advan- tageous due to their smaller size, low current consumption and catchy colours they emit. Here is a running message display circuit wherein the letters formed by LED arrangement light up progressively. Once all the letters of the message have been lit up, the circuit gets reset. The circuit is built around Johnson...
LED Christmas Star
This circuit can be used to construct an attractive Christmas Star. When we switch on this circuit, the brightness of lamp L1 gradually increases. When it reaches the maximum brightness level, the brightness starts decreasing gradually. And when it reaches the minimum brightness level, it again increases automatically. This cycle repeats. The...
Audio Light Modulator circuit
Audio light modulations add to the enjoyment of music during functions organised at home or outdoors. Presented here is one such simple circuit in which light is modulated using a small fraction of the audio output from the speaker terminals of the audio amplifier. The output from the speaker terminals of audio amplifier is connected to a...
200 LEDs Christmas Lights circuit
This simple and inexpensive circuit built around a popular CMOS hex inverter IC CD4069UB offers four sequential switching outputs that may be used to control 200 LEDs (50 LEDs per channel), driven directly from mains supply. Input supply of 230V AC is rectified by the bridge rectifiers D1 to D4. After fullwave rectification, the average output...
LCD to USB interface
LCD2USB is a open source/open hardware project. The goal of LCD2USB is to connect HD44780 based text LCD displays to various PCs via USB. LCD2USB was meant to be cheap and to be made of easily available parts. It is therefore based on the Atmel AVR Mega8 CPU and does not require any difficult to obtain parts like separate USB controllers and the...
80x32 LED matrix display
I recently purchased 10 SLM1608 (SLM1606) LED matrix display units from Ebay (you might also contact the seller directly at firstname.lastname@example.org). These are 16x16 LED matrix units with a green and a red LED per pixel allowing each pixel to be switched to either green, red, amber or off. The goal of this LEDMATRIX project was to build a 80x32 pixel...
Infra-red detector circuit
This circuit is a simple IR detector for testing IR remote controllers. The circuit is based on one phototransistor which receives the IR beam. The NPN transistor works as an amplifier which feeds current to the led. When this circuit detects IR or light, the LED is on. So you need to shield the phototransistor from ambient light if you don't...
Laser Data Link schematic
This document tells about one of my experiments with semiconductor laser modules. I bought one semiconductor laser for all kinds of experiments. This TIM202 module is a small (38x14x14 mm) semiconductor laser module, similar to those types used in laser pointers. It takes 3V 45mA and outputs 3-5mW 670nm laser beam. One evening I got an idea to...
Advanced Light Dimmer
This circuit is a real core of the dimmer system. This circuit generates ramp 100 Hz signal which is syncronized to the incoming mains voltage. The ramp signal which is generated will start form 10V and go linearly down to 0V in 10 milliseconds. At the next mains voltage zero crossing the ramp signal will again immediatly start from 10V and go...
This is an IR transmitting circuit which can be used in many projects (I designed this to try to make my 3D glasses wireless). This IR transmitter sends 40 kHz (frequency can be adjusted using R2) carrier under computer control (computer can turn the IR transmission on and off). IR carriers at around 40 kHz carrier frequency are widely used in...
This is one of my stroboscope designs. Usually many stoboscope circuit work directly from mains voltage, but this circuit uses 12V DC intead od mains AC. This is very good idea if you don't want to mess with direct mains voltage connected circuit or you want to run the stroboscope from batteries. The circuit has some special functions compared...
Strobo triggering schematics
This page contains some information on circuits which can be used for triggering stroboscopes from external circuits. The circuit here are designed to be integrate to strboscope circuits so that they can triggered using external trigger pulse. The standard trigger pulse used in professional stroboscope controllers is 3-10V pulse. If you don't...
12 Volt Fluorescent Lamp circuits
Here is the schematic diagram for a 20 Watt driver. I developed this circuit in 1985, and used it to build a lamp that found much use both as camping light and as emergency light during the then-frequent power outages. The two transistors work as a push-pull oscillator. To avoid crossover conduction, during operation the bases are self-biased...
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
Digital Signal Integrity
Interconnection and Timing of Digital Circuits
CMOS Circuits Tutorial