Vacuum Tubes Valves
Musical & effects
Yagi Uda Antennas
Metal Detector Circuits
Liquid Sensing Circuits
Light Sensing Circuits
Voltage Detector Circuits
Air-Gas Detection Circuits
Human Sensing Circuits
RF & Radiation
Optical Sensing Circuits
Free Energy Circuits
AC to DC & DC to DC
Solar Cell Circuits
Micro Power Circuits
Switching Power Supplies
Light Laser LED
Digital to Analog
Analog to Digital
Data Bus Circuits
Voltage to Pulse
Current to Voltage
Frequency to Voltage
RF Converter Circuits
Sine to Square Wave
Voltage to Current
voltage to frequency
Period to Voltage
Video Wall circuits
TV Video Circuits
Motor Control Circuits
8051 / 8052
PCB CAD Software
Car bike Circuits
555 Timer Circuits
Remote Control Toy
H Bridge Circuit
Interconnection & Timing
Digital Signal Integrity
Digital & Bipolars
Sensors & Detectors
Regulated Power Supply
4 Band Resistor
5 Band resistor
6 Band resistor
Meter Counter Circuits
The input consists of two comparators that operate with different reference voltages supplied by separate potential dividers.
Low-Cost Window Comparator
This circuit outputs a TTL-compatible - pulse whenever the signal falls within the limits set by potentiometers
This window generator uses a single LM324 op amp and features two adjustable set points. When the two comparators formed b
In Fig. 104-3(a), when Vin is between reference voltages Vi and Vu, output Vout goes low. If Vin> Vl, IC2 produces a low
The high switching speed, low offset current and low offset voltage of the HA-4900 series make this window detector extreme
Battery Tester Circuit
The battery tester uses four transistors and two LEDs to indicate the condition of any battery you want to test. Q3 and Q4 are connected in a Darlington configuration that has extremely high gain. LED L2 lights when a small positive potential appears on the base of Q3. Transistors Ql and Q2 form a direct-coupled dc-amplifier circuit. The output...
Battery Watchdog Circuit
This circuit uses a pair of Zener diodes to monitor battery voltage of a 12-V battery. If below 11 V, 1)1 ceases to conduct, pin 3 of 102 goes high, setting FF IC2 turning on Ql, Kl, and the battery charger.
Battery Test Circuit Circuit
Using this circuit, tiiree levels of voltage can be displayednormal (11 to 15 V), liigh (>15 V), and low (11 V). When the voltage is low, the LED glows steadily. In the normal range, the LED is off. When the voltage is high, the LED blinks at a 1-Hz rate.
Bargraph Led Battery Tester Circuit
The LM3914A bargraph LEDis used here as a voltmeter for battery testing. The circuit is powered by a 4.5-V battery and compares the battery under test with an internally derived reference, set by R1/R2/P1. Each LED of the 10 represent 10% of full scale.
Polarity Indicator Circuit
This circuit consists of a tri-color LED, a resistor, wire, and a coin-size test plate. You will have to build two such circuits one for each black clamp on a set of auto battery jumper cables. The author installed the circuits inside the black clamps themselves using lengths of wire to make the connections to the red clamps. The first step is...
Bi-Color Indicator Circuit
With SI open, base bias is supplied to Q2 through a voltage divider (formed by R2 and R3), thus turning on the green element in the LED. That indicates that power is being supplied to the project. If you close SI, current through R1 biases Ql on, thereby grounding the voltage divider and turning off Q2. That reverses the flow of current through...
Visual Continuity Tester Circuit
By judging the rate at which a particular LED flashes, you`ll be able to estimate the resistance. The circuit consists of two IC`s (1 4011 CMOS quad 2-input, NAND gate, Ul; and a 4024 binary counter, U2), seven LEDs, and a handful of additional .components. All of the gates in Ul are wired as inverters. Two of the inverters (Ul-a and Ul-b)...
Rc Decade Box Circuit
This decade box can be set for any resistance value between 10 and 11.1 in 10- stops. A switch can be used to configure several RC configurations. Use close tolerance components in the circuit. If possible, check components with-an accurate bridge or other means to ensure accuracy. THE VARIOUS CONFIGURATIONS are set using S13: (a) resistor...
Cable Tester Circuit
At the heart of the cable tester are two op amps, which are used as a window- comparator to indicate a short- or open-circuit condition. A third op-amp comparator is used to indicate a good circuit (i.e., neither open nor shorted). Colored LEDs are used to show the condition of individual conductors within the cable under test; a red one to...
Transistor Checker Circuit
The circuit is built around a 741 general-purpose op amp that is configured as a voltage follower; with the components shown, the op amp has a voltage gain of one. The output of the 741 is used to drive a 50- meter movement. Potentiometer R7 is used to zero the meter and R6 sets the meter`s full-scale reading, Calibrating the meter is a snap....
Audible Logic Tester Circuit
The tester provides an audible indication of the logic level of the signal presented to its input. A logic high is indicated by a high tone, a logic low is indicated by a low tone, and oscillation is indicated by an alternating tone. The input is high impedance, so it will not load down the circuit under test. It can be used to troubleshoot TTL...
Digital Pressure Gauge Circuit
This electronic pressure gauge uses a Wheatstone bridge-type pressure sensor tb drive a 3 A digit A/D converter and a display. IC1 is a pump (quad) that interfaces the bridge sensor to the A/D converter. R16 provides zero adjustment and R6 provides full-scale calibration.
Simple Short Finder Circuit
Transistors Ql and Q2, together with resistors Rl through R7, make up the input balancing stage, which senses the resistance between points X and Y. The input stage is essentially a bridge, consisting of Rl, R2, R6, R7, and the resistance between points X and Y. Transistors Q3 and Q4 and their associated passive components form a buzzer, which...
Ac Wiring Locator Circuit
The tester consists of a rectifier circuit and a multivibrator circuit. The ac voltage is half-wave rectified by diode D1 and stored in capacitor CI. Resistor Rl is used to limit the current through D1 to a safe value. The voltage stored across CI supplies ICi operating power. The IC, the versatile 555 timer, is configured to operate as a...
Room Monitor Circuit
The circuit uses Ql to buffer the right-channel balance output while Q2 and Q3 form a VOX circuit. When the signal level from the microphone goes high, the output of the VOX also goes high and the multiplexer inside IC1 switches the high-gain left-channel output through to a following buffer stage.
Baby Monitor Circuit
Transmitter operation. Operating power for the transmitter circuit is derived directly from the ac line. The dc power to operate the circuit is generated in two stages, one for an RF power-am-plifier stage, and the second for the remainder of the circuit. The ac line voltage is applied to Dl, which half-wave rectifies the ac input. The...
Sample-And-Hold Circuit Ii Circuit
Driving a D/A converter with an A/D converter provides an overall analog-hold function, which though limited in output resolution, offers zero voltage droop and infinite hold time. The A/D converter shown (IC1) includes a 12-bit compatible track/hold at its input. The track/hold specifies a 6-MHz full-power bandwidth, a 30-ns aperture delay,...
Transmitter-oscilloscope coupler for CB signals
To display an rf signal, connect LI to the transmitter and points A and B to the vertical plates of the oscilloscope. Adjust LI for minimum SWR and C3 for the desired trace height on the CRT
Offset-Adjusting Current Source Circuit
Though this setup can act as a cost-effective current source with an output accurate to 1%, the voltage offset will turn on the current source even when Vqq equals Vin. 2. Modifying the configuration of Figure 1 can rectify the problem of the current source being turned on by the voltage offset. The addition of R7 allows an adjustment that...
Check For Op-Amp Dc Offset Shift Circuit
The dc values of op-amp offsets can`t always be taken for granted when delivering ac outputs. No device is ever exactly symmetrical for maximum positive slew rate versus maximum negative slew rate. Consequently, there is always some range of output slew rates in which the device used limits in one direction more severely than in the other. What...
Crystal display (LCD) tester
Liquid crystal displays are currently available in several versions and various sizes. The wide variety of features, has resulted in there a little chaos in the provision of the pin. So that even when, after much effort, we can find a screen that fits our needs, we are rather difficult to use it. And because most likely we can not find technical...
8-Digit up-down counter
This circuit shows how to cascade counters and retain correct leading zero blanking. The NAND gate detects whether a digit is active since one of the two segments a or b is active on any unblanked number. The flip flop is clocked by the least significant digit of the high order counter, and if this digit is not blanked.
The circuit provides a simple means of determining the succession of phases of a 3-phase 120 V source used in synchro work. Terminals A, BT and C are connected to the three terminals of the source to be checked. If the neon bulb lights, interchange any two leads; the light then extinguishes and A, B, and C indicate the correct sequence. If power...
The circuit uses a CA3130 BiMOS op amp as the sample-readout amplifier for the storage (sample-holding) capacitor Cl, and a CA3080A as the sample-control amplifier.
Sample and hold circuit II
This circuit rapidly charges capacitor CST0 to a voltage equal to an input signal. The input signal is then electrically disconnected from the capacitor with the charge still remaining on CSTO. Since CST0 is in the negative feedback loop of the operational amplifier, the output voltage of the amplifier is equal to the voltage across the...
Performance sample and hold
When switch SWl is positive, the FET is turned on, and has a resistance of about 400 ohm. The input voltage charges up the capacitor through the FET. When SWl is negative, the FET is turned off (pinched off). To get a long storage time, the op amp must have a very low input bias current. For the CA3140, this current is about 10 pico amps.
Infinite sample and hold amplifier
During normal' 'hold'' mode, the replicated analog voltage is buffered straight through the S/H amplifier to the output. Upon issuance of a SAMPLE signal, the S/H amplifier is placed in the hold mode, holding the voltage until the new analog voltage is valid. The same SAMPLE signal triggers an update to the input sample-and-hold amplifier. The...
Frequency Meter Circuits
VU Meter Circuits
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
Digital Signal Integrity
Interconnection and Timing of Digital Circuits
CMOS Circuits Tutorial