Vacuum Tubes Valves
Musical & effects
Yagi Uda Antennas
Metal Detector Circuits
Liquid Sensing Circuits
Light Sensing Circuits
Voltage Detector Circuits
Air-Gas Detection Circuits
Human Sensing Circuits
RF & Radiation
Optical Sensing Circuits
Free Energy Circuits
AC to DC & DC to DC
Solar Cell Circuits
Micro Power Circuits
Switching Power Supplies
Light Laser LED
Digital to Analog
Analog to Digital
Data Bus Circuits
Voltage to Pulse
Current to Voltage
Frequency to Voltage
RF Converter Circuits
Sine to Square Wave
Voltage to Current
voltage to frequency
Period to Voltage
Video Wall circuits
TV Video Circuits
Motor Control Circuits
8051 / 8052
PCB CAD Software
Car bike Circuits
555 Timer Circuits
Remote Control Toy
H Bridge Circuit
Interconnection & Timing
Digital Signal Integrity
Digital & Bipolars
Sensors & Detectors
Regulated Power Supply
4 Band Resistor
5 Band resistor
6 Band resistor
Meter Counter Circuits
This simple circuit is a good solution to the powering a dual supply op amp from a single battery problem. The circuit simply takes a positive voltage and inverts it. It uses only one 555 timer and a few other passive components, so it doesn`t add much in the way of size and cost to a project.
Telephone Ring Modulator
The circuit requires four astable multivibrators for its working. Therefore two 556 ICs are used here. The IC 556 contains two timers (similar to 555 ICs) in a single package. One can also assemble this circuit using four separate 555 ICs. The first multivibrator produces a rectangular waveform with 1-second low duration and 2-second high...
This device is a simple timer, allowing to keep on the headlights of your vehicle for about 1min. and 30sec., e.g. when accessing some dark place, without the necessity of coming back to switch-off the lights.
Time delay circuit (555)
A very regular configuration of the 555 astable timer to work as a timer to trigger an alarm or any other equipment connected to pin 3. R resistor should be replaced with a potentiometer that will change the time delay. Capacitor C should be calculated too (there are many 555 calculators around internet).Is a common design, not very accurate but...
This circuit turns-off an amplifier or any other device when a low level audio signal fed to its input is absent for 15 minutes at least. Pushing P1 the device is switched-on feeding any appliance connected to SK1. Input audio signal is boosted and squared by IC2A & IC2B and monitored by LED D4. When D4 illuminates, albeit for a very short...
Infrared gate 2
This is an infrared gate with two sensors planned to use in the wall in the way behind a door. It can be applied in a toilet to keep track of that someone is inside exceeding a certain amount of time. After that time elapsed, the circuit triggers the digital output wich can turn on a ventillator. The time period the output is turned on can be...
Water Activated Alarm
The circuit uses a 555 timer wired as an astable oscillator and powered by the emitter current of the BC109C. Under dry conditions, the transistor will have no bias current and be fully off. As the probes get wet, a small current flows between base and emitter and the transistor switches on. A larger current flows in the collector circuit...
This circuit was developed since a number of visitors of this website requested a timer capable of emitting a beep after one, two, three minutes and so on, for jogging purposes. As shown in the Circuit diagram, SW1 is a 1 pole 9 ways Rotary Switch. Setting the switch in position 1, the Piezo sounder emits three short beeps every minute. In...
Piezo crystal monitors liquid level
The simple and inexpensive circuit in Figure 1 monitors the liquid level in a container. The piezo crystal, carefully mounted at the bottom surface of the container, receives it activation from the 74HCT14 hex Schmitt trigger. The crystal generates stable clock pulses according to its specification (for example, 6.14 MHz) when it is in free air....
Simple circuit times bathroom fan
Forget to turn off the ceiling fan in your bathroom? Install the simple timer in Figure 1. It`s located out-of-sight in the fan unit, and you turn it on via the wall switch. The circuit costs virtually nothing, using "junk" parts. When ac power appears, a simple rectifier develops approximately 7V across filter capacitor C. This voltage powers...
Sleep-switch cum Wake-up Timer
Here is a sleep-switch circuit that can be easily converted into a wake-up timer. A dual-mode time setting makes the system versatile. The circuit is low-cost and can function as a precise timer.
This timer was designed for people wanting to get tanned but at the same time wishing to avoid an excessive exposure to sunlight. A Rotary Switch sets the timer according to six classified Photo-types (see table). A Photo resistor extends the preset time value according to sunlight brightness (see table).
Make a DAC with a microcontroller`s PWM timer
Many embedded-microcontroller applications require generation of analog signals. An integrated or stand-alone DAC fills the role. However, you can often use PWM signals for generating the required analog signals. You can use PWM signals to create both dc and ac analog signals. This Design Idea shows how to use a PWM timer to simultaneously...
RC CONTROLLED DIGITAL CAMERA
The aim of this project was to get a digital camera into a small electric radio controlled (RC) aeroplane and still have it fly. The aeroplane shown, a park flyer, weighs between 400 and 550 grams depending on the size of battery and wing configeration that I use.
555 Timer as an A/D converter
I had a Basic Stamp project that needed to measure a nominal 12 volt battery, and I wanted a simple solution. This is the simplest I could come up with. The 555 timer will put out positive pulses. The pulse width is inversely proportional to the difference in voltage between the voltage at "ANALOG IN" and the voltage of the 4.7uF capacitor(let`s...
12-Bit Sampling A/D Converter Conserves Power
This application note uses a timer IC (ICL7555), CMOS logic and discrete transistors to automatically control the conversion the MAX190 12-bit SAR analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The delay between conversions can be programed using a resistor. Logic circuits ensures proper startup when power is applied.
BIOS interrupt performs A/D conversion
Most A/D-conversion techniques use dedicated hardware, usually a single-chip IC. The flexible conversion technique allows you to use successive-approximation, ramp-type, or other converters by writing the appropriate control software. The design in Figure 1 uses a PC`s parallel port for interface to a DAC and a special BIOS interrupt (INT 1CH)...
dimming control for white-LED driver
Figure 1 shows the classic way to use a backlight-driver IC to provide dimming. By modulating an external PWM signal, the circuit controls the white-LED current. By adjusting the on/off-time ratio, or duty cycle, the circuit can provide drive ranging anywhere from full-on to full-off. This circuit relies on the fact that the baseband or...
I don`t know why, but people like blinking lights. You see LED chasers everywhere, in TV shows (Knight Rider), movies, and store windows. This schematic is my version of a simple 10 LED chaser. There is no 555 timer used because at my local electronics store they are over $4 Cdn. Instead, an oscillator made up of two sections of a 4011 NAND gate...
The LED Torch is based on a 7555 timer running in astable mode (do not use an ordinary 555). A white LED (Maplin order code NR73) produces 400 mcd light output, which, when focussed, can illuminate objects at 30 metres. Try Conrad Electronic for what appears to be a stronger white LED (order code 15 37 45-11). A convex lens with short focal...
Electromechanical door chimes can enhance your home, but they are vulnerable to costly repair problems. A defective pushbutton switch or a careless visitor can maintain the chime in an energized state for a prolonged period, thereby damaging the chime. The circuit in Figure 1 prevents damage to the chime and improves the chime`s effectiveness by...
Time Delay Relay
A time delay relay is a relay that stays on for a certain amount of time once activated. This time delay relay is made up of a simple adjustable timer circuit which controls the actual relay. The time is adjustable from 0 to about 20 seconds with the parts specified. The current capacity of the circuit is only limited by what kind of relay you...
Li-Ion Charge Termination Using the LT1505
Li-Ion batteries are normally charged with a current limited constant voltage for a fixed length of time. At the end of this time period, the voltage must be removed to prevent internal chemistry changes in the battery. At a minimum, a timer is needed to terminate the charging process after the maximum amount of time required to fully...
ICs Simplify Battery Charging from the USB
The charger is based on the LTC4053a standalone timer-terminated constant current/constant voltage linear charger. The LTC4053 features a thermal loop which maximizes the charging rate under all conditions by regulating the maximum die temperature. Less sophisticated linear chargers must run lower charging rates or risk overheating, thus...
Picured in Figure 1 is a miniature magnetic gun. When optimally tuned, it will propel a small slug about 1.5 metres high, or 2.5 metres horizontally. IC1 is a 555 timer in astable mode, sending approx. 10 ms pulses to decade counter IC2. IC2 is continually reset through R3, until pin 15 is taken low through the "Fire" button. IC2 then...
Simple PWM controller
This 555 timer based PWM controller features almost 0..100% pulse width regulation using R1, while keeping the oscillator frequency relatively stable. The frequency is dependent on values of R1 and C1, values shown will give a frequency range from about 170 to 200 Hz. Any 555 chip will do, CMOS is fine as well. Diodes are not critical, I used...
Two Wire Stepper Motor Positioner
Figure 2 is a diagram of the control circuit built on a 1.45 X 1.8 inch PC board. IC1 is an LMC555 CMOS timer that generates a 200 microsecond wide clock pulses to step the motor and control its speed. The speed can be varied by changing the pulse repetition rate with R1.
Anticipating timer switches before the button
This Design Idea offers a solution to the challenge of turning devices on or off in the past. In Figure 1, IC2 is a 555-type timer (preferably CMOS) connected as a monostable one-shot multivibrator. The pushbutton switch, S1, triggers IC2. You can replace S1 with a transistor or an optocoupler, for example. You can connect VOUT to a relay or...
Digital Timer Light Switch
Typical circuit representative of those used in most light switch type digital timers. The timer module is normally a PIC or custom chip, and it syncs to the AC line so that a trigger pulse can be supplied at the right moment.
Incline Railway Project
The drawings and photos below are for an operating incline railway that was built by the London Model Railroad Group for its `O` scale model railway club located at London, Ontario, Canada. This is a single car model loosely based on a double car incline that operated at Port Stanley, Ontario. The mechanism is driven by a geared slow speed...
Model rocket launch controller
Eight LED`s are used to indicate the pad currently selected. These LED`s are connected to a decade counter, which sequences the LED`s when it receives a clock pulse.Only one LED can be lit at a time from the decade counter, so although this circuit contains many LED`s only a small drain us placed on the battery. The clock pulse for the decade...
Model Aeroplane Navigation Strobe
If you are interested in model aeroplanes and have the capital, a radio controlled electric park flyer is a must have. An RC aeroplane under 400 grams floats around like the rubber models of my youth and contact with the ground doesn`t seems to involve that sickening crunch that comes with larger models. Finding a deserted park in which to fly...
Frequency Meter Circuits
VU Meter Circuits
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
Digital Signal Integrity
Interconnection and Timing of Digital Circuits
CMOS Circuits Tutorial