Differential capacitance measurement

  
A bubble vial with external aluminum-foil electrodes is the sensing element for a simple indicating tiltmeter. To measure bubble displacement, a bridge circuit detects the difference in capacitance between the two sensing electrodes and the reference electrode. Using this circuit, a tiltmeter level vial with 2 mm deflection for 5 arc-seconds of tilt easily resolves 0.05 arc-second.
Differential capacitance measurement  - schematic

The four diodes are CA3039, or equivalent.




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