Vacuum Tubes Valves
Musical & effects
Yagi Uda Antennas
Metal Detector Circuits
Liquid Sensing Circuits
Light Sensing Circuits
Voltage Detector Circuits
Air-Gas Detection Circuits
Human Sensing Circuits
RF & Radiation
Optical Sensing Circuits
Free Energy Circuits
AC to DC & DC to DC
Solar Cell Circuits
Micro Power Circuits
Switching Power Supplies
Light Laser LED
Digital to Analog
Analog to Digital
Data Bus Circuits
Voltage to Pulse
Current to Voltage
Frequency to Voltage
RF Converter Circuits
Sine to Square Wave
Voltage to Current
voltage to frequency
Period to Voltage
Video Wall circuits
TV Video Circuits
Motor Control Circuits
8051 / 8052
PCB CAD Software
Car bike Circuits
555 Timer Circuits
Remote Control Toy
H Bridge Circuit
Interconnection & Timing
Digital Signal Integrity
Digital & Bipolars
Sensors & Detectors
Regulated Power Supply
4 Band Resistor
5 Band resistor
6 Band resistor
Meter Counter Circuits
Zener Diode Tester
Using a single 555 Timer IC and a small transformer to generate a high voltage, this circuit will test zener diodes of voltage ratings up to 50VDC. The 555 timer is used in the astable mode, the output at pin3 drives a small audio transformer such as the LT700. This has a primary impedance of 1K and a secondary impedance of 8 ohms. Used in...
Mains Voltage Probe
This circuit is not a novelty, but it proved so useful, simple and cheap that it is worth building. When the positive (Red) probe is connected to a DC positive voltage and the Black probe to the negative, the Red LED will illuminate. Reversing polarities the Green LED will illuminate. Connecting the probes to an AC source both LEDs will go on.
Two-wire Lamp Flasher
Ideal to operate 3 to 24V DC existing on-circuit lamps LED operation is also possible. This circuit was designed to provide that continuous light lamps already wired into a circuit, become flashing. Simply insert the circuit between existing lamp and negative supply. Especially suited for car or panel pilot lights, this device can drive lamps...
This simple circuit generates narrow pulses at about 700-800Hz frequency. The pulses, containing harmonics up to the MHz region, can be injected into audio or radio-frequency stages of amplifiers, receivers and the like for testing purposes. A high-pitched tone can be heard from the speaker of the device under test when all is working properly....
Measures 10mV to 50Volt RMS in eight ranges. Simply connect to your Avo-meter set to 50µA range. Connect J2 and J3 to an Avo-meter set to 50µA range. Switching SW2 the four input ranges will be multiplied by 5. Total fsd ranges are: 10mV, 50mV, 100mV, 500mV, 1V, 5V, 10V, 50V. Set R11 to read 1V in the 1V range, with a sine wave input of 1V @...
120 and 240Vac LED Indicator
This circuit, designed on request, has proven to be useful to indicate when the voltage in a power supply line is changing from 120V to 240Vac. It can be used in different circumstances and circuits, mainly when an increase in ac or dc supply voltage needs to be detected.
Live line Detector
Detects the presence of a live mains conductor. Minimum parts counting. If the unit is brought close to a live conductor (insulated, and even buried in plaster) capacitive coupling between the live conductor and the probe clocks the counter, and causes the LED to flash 5 times per second, because the 4017 IC divides the mains 50Hz frequency by 10.
Fast Battery Tester
Tests 1.5 to 15 Volt cells. This circuit runs a fast battery test without the need of power supply or expensive moving-coil voltmeters. It features two ranges: when SW1 is set as shown in the circuit diagram, the device can test 3V to 15V batteries. When SW1 is switched to the other position, only 1.5V cells can be tested. Two-LED display, no...
This is a low power voltmeter circuit that can be used with alternative energy systems that run on 12 and 24 volt batteries. The voltmeter is an expanded scale type that indicates small voltage steps over the 10 to 16 volt range for 12 volt batteries and over the 22 to 32 volt range for 24 volt batteries. Power consumption can be as low as 14mw...
Battery Volt Meter
This circuit is used to measure the voltage on a 12V (nominal) lead acid rechargeable battery system. It was specifically designed for use in solar powered systems, but is general enough that it can be used for automotive or other 12V systems. Lead acid batteries normally spend their working lifetime in the voltage range of 11-15 Volts. This...
LOPT / FBT Tester
This little instrument identifies faults in horizontal output stages by doing a `ring` test, i.e. it applies pulses to the LOPT / FBT primary circuit, and counts the number of damped oscillations or `rings` produced. For each `ring` down to about 15% of the test pulse amplitude, one LED in the `bargraph` lights up... nearly all faults will...
milliohmmeter with AT90S2313
A milliohmmeter is just the tool for checking trace resistance on a printed circuit board, tracking down shorted traces, and measuring the contact resistance of a switch or connector. Its the kind of tool that would come in real handy occasionally, but not often enough to justify shelling out hundreds of dollars. Wanting one anyway, I set out to...
RF Field Strength meter
As I used this probe last nigh to determine if a 384 MHz oscillator was really working or not, I remembered email I received a while ago, asking how to make a field strength indicator without the microcontroller. Thus this page. If you want the auto zero version, which is this circuit with an auto-zero integrated circuit, use the circuit shown...
AVR Inductance / Capacitance meter
This instrument requires two precision components: A precision capacitor and a precision inductor. You only need to start with one precision component, either the reference capacitor or the reference inductor, and using this meter, you can select or adjust the other precision component. Calculates and displays L and C from oscillation frequency...
AVR Inductance / Capacitance meter II
If this picture (above) looks a lot like the Pretty Good LC Meter also on this web site, that's because its the same meter, but with some significant improvements. At this point, its a good idea to read the Pretty Good LC Meter page because the rest of this page is based upon the Pretty Good LC Meter, and the Pretty Good LC Meter page explains...
The output of the amplifier is to be measured on a digital voltmeter. Besides being able to accept 20 na to 200 micro amps and output voltages that range form 100 mv to 2 or 3 volts, the amplifier needed to have a low input resistance so the diode could be run at or near zero bias so that its output would be a linear function of light on the...
LED Battery Checkers
The "Battery Good" checker. When the button is pressed, the green LED will glow if the battery voltage is above the preset threshold. This version has a higher parts count than the "Battery Low" version, but a bonus is that it can drive an LED to be very bright, and the luminance is independent of the battery voltage. The simple expedient of...
RF Inductance adaptor for multimeter
The circuit's operating principle is that if you make a pulse width proportioal to inductance, and keep the pulse frequency and amplitude constant, and then pass the pulse through a low pass filter so that only the average voltage comes out, the resulting DC voltage is proportional to the inductance. Stated another way: Pulse width = Inductance...
Waveform Capture and Control
The result was a project that includes a waveform capture circuit, a graphic LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) and a control panel with LED indicators. As described, the display plugs directly into the waveform capture and control unit, which is what the what the rest of this page is dedicated to. The control panel controller appears as an ASCII...
Zener tester circuit
Here is a handy zener diode tester which tests zener diodes with breakdown voltages extending up to 120 volts. The main advantage of this circuit is that it works with a voltage as low as 6V DC and consumes less than 8 mA current. The circuit can be fitted in a 9V battery box. Two-third of the box may be used for four 1.5V batteries and the...
Mains Voltage Checker
This is a CMOS IC (CD4033) based circuit which can be used to detect presence of mains AC voltage without any electrical contact with the conductor carrying AC current/voltage. Thus it can be used to detect mains AC voltage without removing the insulation from the conductor. Just take it in the vicinity of the conductor and it would detect...
Remote control (IR) Tester
Here is a handy gadget for test- ing of infrared (IR) based re- mote control transmitters used for TVs and VCRs etc. The IR signals from a remote control transmitter are sensed by the IR sensor module in the tester and its output at pin 2 goes low. This in turn switches on transistor T1 and causes LED1 to blink. At the same time, the buzzer...
Oscilloscope 4 Channel Adapter
The method goes by the switching method. Making it be possible to see four kinds of the input signals at the same time by switching them at the short period. In addition to the way of introducing here, there is a method which changes the input every period. In case of the method, the changing speed may be low-speed comparatively. The vertical...
Capacitance meter with 555
The tool is based on a NE555 (or LM555) timer i.c., wired as an astable multivibrator. The frequency of the multivibrator is determined by the value of the unknown capacitor Cx. The circuit can be fed by a small battery. I use myself a 9 V block battery which is connected to pins 4 and 8 of the i.c. via an on/off switch. The output of the...
Continuity in Circuit Tester
Continuity tester to check continuity in the circuit (Insakittochekka) is. The continuity check over the circuit board wiring that can be checked at a lower voltage semiconductors do not conduct contained in the circuit, you can just check the wiring short miscarriage pure unaffected parts.
Simplified logic checker. Logic voltage levels have the ability to display LED (Of course I (^_^;)." H "in the LED is green," L "and red LED lights, and so both the open and goes out . But not only that was put on the ability to detect narrow pulses. In doing Shottomaruchibaibureta be extended to a short, pulse, this pulse of about 100ns in LED...
Digital Lux Meter
Photo diode outputs light current that is well proportional to input light power when it is used in short mode. In this lux meter, the output current is converted to voltage with an I-V converter, it is captured by a micrcontroller and displayed it in term of lux. The ppamp U1 in the Circuit Diagram acts as the I-V conversion circuit and its...
Mini PC Digital Oscilloscope
This is a portable oscilloscope adapter that it can be held in breast pocket. Its operation is only sampling and sending to host PC. The most of functions of the oscilloscope are processed by host PC. Therefore, oscilloscope adapter can be simplified. This oscilloscope adapter using a TMP47P242VN 4bit microcontroller for acquisition control. But...
Capacitance Meter ( 68HC711D3FN )
The proposed capacitance is a very powerful assembly to measure in 7 ranges capacitors of 1 pF to 999 uF, avecune excellent precision of about 10 -3 . The range change is fully automatic. The display shows 3 digits with decimal point. Three LEDs indicate the unit: pF nF uF or. Power is normally with a battery or 9V battery with automatic...
PIC16F628 as digital Tachometer
Pin 3 defines the Display type: Common Cathode or Common Anode. Connect this pin to GROUND if you are using common cathode 7-segment led displays. To use common anode displays, connect it to VCC (positive) Pin 4 is the signal input, you can use optical sensors (Fototransistors, fotoresistors, etc), magnetic sensors (Hall effect, reed switch,...
Sound amplitude meter
I made this project as a test to improve a technic to read analog values without analog-to-digital converter. (ADC) I ended with this "sound meter". It may not work perfectly, it needs some improvement but works anyway. It have the feature of "auto-calibration", so it detects the signal, amplify it and measures it. Because the "auto-calibration"...
Simple analogue Tachometer
Basically, this is a frequency-current converter. It is used as frequency meter. Calibrating it can be used as tachometer. Please be aware this is an experimental project, I didn't use it connected on any vehicle but it should work fine after calibration. It can be connected directly to the voltage from the car. The input signal can be connected...
Frequency Meter Circuits
VU Meter Circuits
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
Digital Signal Integrity
Interconnection and Timing of Digital Circuits
CMOS Circuits Tutorial