Vacuum Tubes Valves
Musical & effects
Yagi Uda Antennas
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Air-Gas Detection Circuits
Human Sensing Circuits
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Optical Sensing Circuits
Free Energy Circuits
AC to DC & DC to DC
Solar Cell Circuits
Micro Power Circuits
Switching Power Supplies
Light Laser LED
Digital to Analog
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Data Bus Circuits
Voltage to Pulse
Current to Voltage
Frequency to Voltage
RF Converter Circuits
Sine to Square Wave
Voltage to Current
voltage to frequency
Period to Voltage
Video Wall circuits
TV Video Circuits
Motor Control Circuits
8051 / 8052
PCB CAD Software
Car bike Circuits
555 Timer Circuits
Remote Control Toy
H Bridge Circuit
Interconnection & Timing
Digital Signal Integrity
Digital & Bipolars
Sensors & Detectors
Regulated Power Supply
4 Band Resistor
5 Band resistor
6 Band resistor
AVR Microcontroller Circuits
AVR Microcontroller Circuits
USB AVR programmer
Nowadays, USB is the most popular connection connection between PC and peripherals such as AVR programmers, printers, scanners etc. For that reason I had to modify my old serial AVR In-System-Programmer (ISP) to work with USB connection. You can say, "use a USB to Serial adaptor to connect your AVR ISP with your PC". Yes, that could be a solution
FT232RL USB to Serial Adapter for PIC AVR ATMEGA ARDUINO MCUs
FT232RL USB to Serial UART (TTL) Adapter is a simple and inexpensive way to connect PIC, AVR or ATMEGA MCUs to a PC or Mac via USB connection. FT232RL is an impressive chip because it implements full v2. 0 USB protocol, needs no external crystal, has integrated EEPROM for device ID and product description strings and comes with Royalty-Free driver
Simple AVR Programmer
This is simple to build AVR programmer for Atmel microcontrollers from AVR family. The microcontrollers must support serial programming. AVR programmer is connected to a PC through the RS232 serial interface and can be used with the PonyProg or Avrdude software programmer. AVR programmer is quite simple and it is based on the SI-Prog from the...
PWM Motor Driver with MOSFET H-Bridge and AVR ATmega8
Here is a very simple project of controlling a small DC-motor (taken from an old personal cassette player) with ATmega8. The ATmega8 is having three PWM channels, out of which two are used here. PWM waveforms are fed to MOSFET (RFD3055) H-bridge. Here, direction is controlled using a two-position toggle switch and speed of the motor is...
Avr Light Controller
avr Control 5V buzzer using mcu and a single 5 V power supply
A PB-12N23PW-05Q buzzer and I`m trying to use it with ATmega 162. I can`t connect it directly to pin, because from what I`ve read from 162`s datasheet, it can source at most 20 mA. The buzzer takes 50 (or around 25, if we take a look at the graph), so I don`t think I can just directly connect it to the microcontroller. My initial idea was to...
Wiring diagram check up for usb interfaced avr
The 5 V from USB seems to be powering the led on my laptop power brick. Hence even when I switched the power brick off at the wall outlet, the led is still on. When I unplug the USB it goes off but comes back on again as soon as I plug it in. Do Ijust but a diode in
avr Driving piezo buzzer from MCU pin
AVR Atmega32 flash verification error
An Atmega32A chip and I`ve been trying to program it with a usbasp for quite a few hours. I can change the fuses and write the program, but verification fails. The chip can be erased and fuses can be changed, my only problem is with the verification. The program seems to be written to memory but my LEDs aren`t blinking. I would like tosee two...
pcb Driving 10x10 LED matrix with AVR
Designing a controller PCB for a 10x10 white LED matrix clock (inspired by the tutorial here ). It`s based off an ATmega328 AVR IC and Maxim DS3234 SPI RTC. However, I`m stuck: I have no idea how to control my custom non-standard 10x10 LED matrix. Originally I was going to use a Maxim MAX7219/7221 IC, but it can only drive 8x8 LED matrices. Then...
avr What is the point of Buffers like this in Programmers
On the bottom you will see a 74AC125 which is a Quad Buffer with Tri-State Outputs. I`ve seen quite a few buffers like this on programmers. but im not exactly sure what they do Im assuming whatever "CTL" is controls the "state" of the buffers. but what exactly is the point Why can`t you wire it directly to whatever Port Line (Serial or w/e). Or...
avr How to redesign a circuit to use a current sinking IC rather than a current sourcing IC
Building a serial servo controller to learn about electronics and assembly language as part of my hexapod robot project. Quite early on I decided that I needed more I/O channels than my ATTiny2313 that I was using at the time supported so I investigated some 3-8 line demultiplexer chips ( CD74HCT238E `s) which have allowed me to create a 64...
AVR 1.1V Internal ADC Reference Over-Voltage
If I use the internal 1. 1V reference for the ADC, and my Analog input exceeds 1. 1V, lets say 2. 5V, is that harmful to my microcontroller Or will ADC value simply clip (to 0x3FF) at 1. 1V Speaking from experience alone, not from datasheet references, so be careful: I`ve used internal ref and accidentally connected ADC pin to 4 Volts+ for...
avr microcontroller circuit
Arduino Uno has a ATMEGA328P-PU microcontroller, and bunch of other stuff on the board. I`d like to program the chip without the Arduino software, and only the minimum of other components. I want to eventually create things without the cost of Arduino, and I want to learn about the other parts on the board and add them back as as needed. I`m...
Communication between a USB/serial device and an AVR (atmega/Arduino) microcontroller
A device which provides a USB port. If I attach it to a Windows PC it is recognized as a "CP2103 USB to UART Bridge Controller". According to the device documentation, it should communicate in serial format at 38400bps. Since the USB pinout is different from the serial UART of the uC, firstly I thought I would need a circuit to convert...
avr Piezoelectric Sensor and the ADC
The reason being is that I would like to use the sensor as a force sensor. I noticed that the harder I press it, the higher a voltage it delivers (but for a very short time). This is expected behavior, of course. What I am wondering is how I would connect it to the ADC. I mean, when I press it really hard, the piezo registers upward of 10 V. When
mosfet AVR Pin Dual Use: Input and Output at (seemingly) the same time
A bicycle light control circuit which reads in various buttons and sets various outputs accordingly such as headlight, taillight, blinkers, etc. My current design is based around an ATtiny24 ( Datasheet ) using the internal oscillator (8MHz), programmed in C using AVR-GCC. I would like to keep external components such as shift registers to a...
avr Programming an ATmega1284p with Arduino IDE and internal RC Oscillator
Program an ATmega1284p with my AVR Dragon and the Arduino IDE. So far I have installed mighty1284p, after writing my sketch. I compile it using the Arduino IDE and then cd into the (temporary) directory the sketch is build in. It contains the. hex file, as seems logic. /* Blink Turns on an LED on for one second, then offfor one second,...
atmel driving LEDs directly from microcontroller pins
LED will turn on when PIO goes low - acting like GND - and current will be taken from power supply not from PIO like first method. So do I must take care of maximum current of PIO although it just act like GND not like a power supply -like method 1 -. when I make PIO low dose it really connect to GND or something else Did youtry what an LED...
AVR ISP ScoketBoard
Most Atmel AVR microcontrollers can be programmed via their in-built serial programming interfaces (SPI). This method is ideal for in-situ programming, such as might be used in manufacturing or for firmware development or field upgrades. In this scenario, the micro remains in its socket on the application board and a low-cost in-system...
How to display text on 16x2 LCD using AVR microcontroller (ATmega16)
This article is in continuation to the articleSingle character LCD display using AVR. The aforesaid article shows how to display a single letter onLCD. Moving forward towards learning to work with LCD, this article explains how to display a string on LCD. Displaying string is occasionally used in many applications. The connection of the LCD with t
AVR 7 Segment Clock Schematic
Clock Display Atmel Atmega8535
Oscilloscope Xminilab-B on the microcontroller Atmel AVR ATXMEGA32A4
Oscilloscope Xminilab-B on the microcontroller Atmel AVR ATXMEGA32A4 electro suite in rlocman The Gabotronis company produces debug board Oscilloscope Xminilab-B on the microcontroller Atmel AVR ATXMEGA32A4 electro suite. As we found in rlocman.ru, The Gabotronis company produces debug board..
Relay Timer with ATmega8 AVR MCU
A simple timer that can be used to turn on/off a load after user specified time. The prototype was developed using xBoard MINI, a low cost easy to use ATmega8 development board. The program was burned to the MCU`s flash memory using eXtreme Burner - AVR Software and Hardware. The Simple Device Timer project designed using ATmega8 AVR MVU.
4x3 4x4 Matrix Keypad Interface with Atmel AVR Microcontrollers
Many application requires large number of keys connected to a computing system. Example includes a PC keyboard, Cell Phone keypad and Calculators. If we connect a single key to MCU, we just connect it directly to i/o line. But we cannot connect, say 10 or 100 keys directly MCUs i/o. Because :- We want to avoid all these troubles so we use some...
Easy 24C I2C Serial EEPROM Interfacing with AVR Microcontrollers
An EEPROM is kinds of novalatile memory, that means it is used for storing digital data permanently without any power suply. EEPROM stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. The advantage of these kind of ROMs is that they can be erased Electrically to make them ready for storing new data. Compare this with a CD R disks they
interfacing ds1307 rtc chip with avr microcontroller
Interfacing RFID Reader with AVR MCUs
RFID is a great technology, has may uses and become very cheap and easy to implement these days. This tutorial describes how to interface a RFID Reader with a common Atmel AVR MCU..
Interfacing TCS3200 Colour Sensor with AVR ATmega32
Detecting colour of an object can be an interesting and useful electronic application. It can be realized using a colour sensor like TCS3200 and a general purpose microcontroller like AVR ATmega32. TCS3200 chip is designed to detect the colour of light incident on it. It has an array of photodiode (a matrix of 8x8, so a total 64 sensors). These ph
Servo Motor Control by Using AVR ATmega32 Microcontroller
This article is for complete beginners with servo motors. It teaches you the servo motor basic theory and gives detailed steps to use them with AVR Microcontrollers like ATmega32..
AVR ATmega8 Based LFR
Arduino Projects and Circuits
PIC Microcontroller Circuits
Microcontroller Programmer Circuits
68HC11 Microcontroller Circuits
8051 / 8052 Microcontroller Circuits
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
Digital Signal Integrity
Interconnection and Timing of Digital Circuits
CMOS Circuits Tutorial