3-Wire Serial LCD using PIC12F683

The character data and command from the microcontroller is transferred serially to a shift register (74HC595), and the parallel output from the shift register is fed to LCD pins. 74HC595 is a high-speed 8-bit serial in, serial or parallel-out shift register with a storage register and 3-state outputs. The shift register and storage registers have separate clocks, SH_CP and ST_CP respectively. Data in the shift register is shifted on the positive-going transitions of SH_CP, and the content of shift register will be transferred to the storage register on a positive-going transition of the ST_CP. If we tie both the clocks together, the shift register will always be one clock ahead of the storage register. The 8-bit data of the storage register will appear at the parallel output (Q0-Q7) when the output enable (OE) is low.
3-Wire Serial LCD using PIC12F683 - schematic

In this project, SH_CP and ST_CP are tied together. So, if we want to receive a serially transferred 8-bit into parallel form at Q0-Q7, an extra clock pulse is required after transmitting the 8-th bit of serial data because the clocks are tied and the storage register is 1-clock behind the shift register. The hardware part of this project is fairly simple. The challenging part is to write the driver software that is responsible for a proper sequence of operations required to serially transfer character data and command to 74HC595 serial-in parallel-out shift register. The shift register parallel output is then connected to LCD data lines (D4-D7) and RS control pin. This arrangement requires 3-pins of microcontroller to display character data on a parallel LCD display: 2 pins for providing Clock and Data to 74HC595, and 1 pin for enable control (E) pin of LCD module. Since the data transfer uses 4-bit mode, any 8-bit command or character data is sent in two steps: send the higher nibble first, and then the lower nibble. The R/W control pin is grounded, and therefore no data or status read from the LCD module is possible in this case. A first, a bit of data fed to DS pin of 74HC595 appears at Q0 output after 2 clocks (because SH_CP and ST_CP are tied). So, sending 4-bit data (D4-D7) and an RS signal require 6 clock pulses till they appear at Q0-Q4 outputs respectively. When the LCD module is turned ON, it is initialized in...

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