Vacuum Tubes Valves
Musical & effects
Yagi Uda Antennas
Metal Detector Circuits
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Optical Sensing Circuits
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AC to DC & DC to DC
Solar Cell Circuits
Micro Power Circuits
Switching Power Supplies
Light Laser LED
Digital to Analog
Analog to Digital
Data Bus Circuits
Voltage to Pulse
Current to Voltage
Frequency to Voltage
RF Converter Circuits
Sine to Square Wave
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voltage to frequency
Period to Voltage
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TV Video Circuits
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8051 / 8052
PCB CAD Software
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555 Timer Circuits
Remote Control Toy
H Bridge Circuit
Interconnection & Timing
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Digital & Bipolars
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Regulated Power Supply
4 Band Resistor
5 Band resistor
6 Band resistor
PIC Microcontroller Circuits
PIC Microcontroller Circuits
Sound amplitude meter
I made this project as a test to improve a technic to read analog values without analog-to-digital converter. (ADC) I ended with this "sound meter". It may not work perfectly, it needs some improvement but works anyway. It have the feature of "auto-calibration", so it detects the signal, amplify it and measures it. Because the "auto-calibration"...
Security Lock with keypad and LCD (PIC16F84A)
Finally I was able to control an LCD Hitachi display and a 12-key matrix keypad with only one 16F84 or 16F628. In a near future, I will be able to control a full QUERTY-type keyboard and a LCD display. The biggest improvement on this projects was the compatibility with the Microchip PIC 16F84 and the 16F628, also the 16x1 or the 8x1 LCD Hitachi...
ON/OFF button using Microcontrollers
Using a switch to power up your microcontroller projects may not be a good idea if you need to "wake" the PIC during some events. For example: A metal detector sends a pulse indicating a car is ready to enter into a garaje, so the user needs to type a password to open the garage door or just slide the access card. You may leave the...
Led Clock using PIC16F84
Using only 2 capacitors, 3 resistors, 4 seven-segment Display, 1 xtal, 2 switches n.o. and 1 Microcontroller PIC, you can build this Digital Led Clock. you can use common anode or common cathode display, just select the display type. Here is the pinout information: Pin 3 defines the display type. If you will use common cathode display, connect...
LCD digital Clock using PIC16F628
The reason why I'm using a LCD display is because it allow me to display many characters and it doesn't need to be "refreshed" as 7-segment Led displays. Also, the interface requieres less I/O pins. For this project I used a 16x1 LCD Display with 4-bits interface.
Rotating Message board using PIC12F629
A simple rotating display. Just spin and enjoy. While the "Air display" is rotating, it writes the message on the air. Because the "persistence of the vision", you will be able to read the message. The operation is super simple and you don't need an user manual. Press the button to turn it on. Press the button to change the message and press the...
Video Switcher with PIC16F819
This device uses the second method (which, if you don't already know, requires about 100 times less parts), but adds motion detection to switch cameras. The usual way to detect motion is to store a complete video frame and then look for changes on successive frames. Again, a lot of trouble can be saved by only sampling 64 locations on the...
PIC16F84 Solar Charger
The previous version of this device used pulse width modulation (pwm) to control the power from the five solar panels to charge the battery bank. Under full sun conditions the MOSFETS got a bit warm and the whole unit radiated a lot of RFI. This design uses a set of relays - one for each panel. If the controller decides the battery voltage is...
Remote IR controller
This unit provide 2 way IR communications using a numeric keypad and an LCD display. Data is sent and recieved in ASCII with no regard to what the data means to any particular device. The ASCII data still needs some form of encoding. For this I chose 10-pulse coding of 38Khz IR using a nifty 99 cent receiver chip , TSOP4838 The transmitting is...
Phone digital answering machine
This unit is an upgrade of the previous phone call interceptor. Instead of using an answering machine to provide the outgoing message and recording functions, it uses the ISD4004 (from Windbond Electronics). The ISD4004 records up to 8 minutes of audio. I use the first several seconds for outgoing message prompts. The remaining time is used to...
Color organ with PIC16F84
Flash-back to the 60's with this 5 channel unit with up to 100 watts per channel. This unit uses a PIC16F84 with an 8 bit A/D. The signal from both stereo channels is combined and digitized. Each of 5 frequency bands is processed using a 16 point FFT. Then the level of each channel is output as PWM (pulse width modulation) to a set of solid...
Capacitor discharge ignition system ( PIC 16F615 )
This device uses a PIC12F615 to implement a capacitor discharge ignition system. When the switch (button) is closed, the PIC sends pulses to the IRF644 MosFet creating high voltage pulses to charge the 1.0 uf/250 volt capacitor. The voltage is read back via a 1M/10k divider until 200 volts is reached. Then the SCR (mislabeled triac above) is...
Signal Generator 20KHz
This fucntion gernerator IC is specified to work to 20 MHz. So far, this unit works nicely to 50KHz. Since I seldom need signals higher than that, it has taken up a happy home on my workbench and further development is iffy at best. There are two basic approaches to controlling the frequency in this type of device. One way is to adjust the...
Phone Line Simulator with PIC16F819
Creating projects that connect to the phone line can be a real chore without some device like this. It generates the 48 volts DC for the on-hook condition, the 100 volts AC for the ring signal, and the 20 milliamperes DC for the off-hook condition. To use the device, a phone is connected to the left jack. When it is picked up (off-hook), a ring...
PC interfaced Security System
Creating a modular, networked, home control system was greatly simplified by using common 4-wire phone cable with stake-on connectors. The cable feeds both power and network signals to the various modules. Each module is made on a single sided circuit board with RJ-11 connectors (for the network / power) along with other connectors as needed....
Fan Controller with PIC12F675
This device acts as a variable speed control for the heater blower in a car. It takes its power directly from the existing wiring and connects with just 2 wires. It will also work for any 12 volt device up to 10 amps. A PIC12F675 provides all of the necessary functions. It reads the (10k) linear potentiometer and generates appropriately timed...
Furby robot using PIC16F819
There are several websites documenting the original Furby circuit board. I decided to replace the original circuit entirely and replace it with a PIC based controller. The mechanism of the Furby itself was designed around micro- controllers. It has one motor that runs the eyes, mouth, and ears in sequence. Two sensors are provided from the...
A Talking Fish using PIC16F819
These items were sold nationally several years ago. The fish would sing, open its mouth, turn its head, and flap its tail. After removing the back panel, all of the existing electronics were removed leaving only the 3 servo motors, speaker and photocell. The reworked insides are shown here. Wires from each of the motors and from the photocell...
Talking Frog Box using PIC16F870
This device 'listens' to a conversations and then interjects words and phrases at inappropriate times. I got this box at a local thrift store for $1.50 (special, this week only). It has a nice hinged top and a place to insert a panel with a designed glued to it. Ok, so I found this frog on the net and dug up the Egyption boarder from somewhere...
Video title generator
Want to add video to your next project? This device uses a PIC16F819 and not much else. Getting 20 characters to a line is possible by using the SPI port to generate video. Neat trick, eh? The character set is limited to upper case and a few punctuation marks and uses a 'folded data table' to store the image data in the space available. Input to...
Magnetic Card Reader with PIC12F675
The reader mechanism shown was purchased from All Electronics for $1.50. The unit provides the magnetic head on a spring mechanism along with low level head signal amplifiers and data slicers. Three signal lines comming from the unit provide card presence, clock, and data. When actively reading a card, it draws about 50ma of current at 5 volts.
Car Controller using PIC16F870
Our present car controller runs on a single PIC16F870 micro and provides functions for remote door locks, headlight reminder, and car finder. It is constructed using wire-wrap to allow for future expansion and is mounted using Velcro on the passenger side of the center console. The downside of this design is that changes to the system require a...
autodetects baud rate circuit MAX202 and PIC16C54
The popularity and easy access of RS-232 ports lend them to many communication projects. You can use a port as is” or as a tiny parallel port when the exchange uses only control lines. Before the asynchronous serial-data transfer between two devices can take place, you must ensure that both devices are configured to the same data format and...
LED SignBoard with PIC 16F84A
The pins RA3 to RA0, are used as outputs driving each column LED. The pins RB0 to RB7 are used as outputs driving signal for each column LED. The 74HC154 (Decoder 4 to 16) is the chip that decodes the signal into a binary digit dekaexapsifio. In the left figure all the pins of the door at a reasonable RA 0 (Low), in which case only the output 0...
8 LED Effects using PIC16F84A
Five pins RA0 to RA4 are used as inputs. The pins are connected to the 5V average resistance 10K (Pull-up). So when no switch is not depressed all the pins have a high potential (HI +5 V). When one of them is pressed then the foot is connected to get a low potential (LOW 0V). When a switch is pressed, then the phenomenon of 'Bounce' (Debaunce),...
Count Down Timer with PIC16F84A
The choice of material to read or drive is the definition of three digits (Bit), RA0, 1,2 PORTA of the PIC at the entrance of 74HC138A. To select a material for reading or driving an output of 78HC138 is '0 '(Low), forcing the transistor (2SA1015) to conduct and thus is the material with the feet of PORTB. This function ensures that there will...
The SCHAER+ programmer is a programmer for PIC18 family from a PC parallel port (LPT). It is derivated from the SCHAER programmer I used to download my projects in PIC1684. The SCHAER+ programmer should be improved to use a USB connection, without any external power supply... The SCHAER programmer I'm currently using allows me to program chips...
A/D converter 16Bit with LCD and PIC18F2550
The analog to digital converter (ADC) is a commonly required in most of the projects. Analog voltage measurement can be done using the ADC hardware built in together in a PIC. The picture below show a simple setup for measuring the voltage through the adjustment of the potentiometer. PIC used in this example come with a 10 bit ADC. In the...
Auto Baud Rate with PIC18F2455
Most of the newer PIC come with the EUSART module which have the function for auto baud rate detection. The features allow a person to set the baud rate at runtime by sending the character "U" or 0x55 to the PIC. With ABDEN (auto baud rate enable) bit set and using BRG clock as a reference, each rising edge occurring on the RX pin is taken as a...
PWM controller with PIC18f2455
The use of pulse width modulation (PWM) is common for the use of controlling power to a particular electrical device. Motor speed control, LED contrast control, power supplies are some of the example usage of PWM. 18 series PIC always come with a CCP module which is capable of generating PWM. The picture below shows an example of using the...
Timer and Interrupt
There are 4 timers in PIC18 which are timer0 to timer3. Timers are used when precise timing event need to be generated. Timers are usually used in conjunction with interrupt to keep the timing accurate. This guide will show an example of using timer0 to count a timer for every second. The circuit used for this example is the same as the circuit...
Programmable Sound Generator
The AY-3-8910/8912 is a register oriented Programmable Sound Generator (PSG). Communication between the processor and the PSG is based on the concept of memory-mapped I/O. Control commands are issued to the PSG by writing to 16 memory-mapped registers. Each of the 16 registers within the PSG is also readable so that the microprocessor can...
Arduino Projects and Circuits
AVR Microcontroller Circuits
Microcontroller Programmer Circuits
68HC11 Microcontroller Circuits
8051 / 8052 Microcontroller Circuits
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
Digital Signal Integrity
Interconnection and Timing of Digital Circuits
CMOS Circuits Tutorial