Vacuum Tubes Valves
Musical & effects
Yagi Uda Antennas
Metal Detector Circuits
Liquid Sensing Circuits
Light Sensing Circuits
Voltage Detector Circuits
Air-Gas Detection Circuits
Human Sensing Circuits
RF & Radiation
Optical Sensing Circuits
Free Energy Circuits
AC to DC & DC to DC
Solar Cell Circuits
Micro Power Circuits
Switching Power Supplies
Light Laser LED
Digital to Analog
Analog to Digital
Data Bus Circuits
Voltage to Pulse
Current to Voltage
Frequency to Voltage
RF Converter Circuits
Sine to Square Wave
Voltage to Current
voltage to frequency
Period to Voltage
Video Wall circuits
TV Video Circuits
Motor Control Circuits
8051 / 8052
PCB CAD Software
Car bike Circuits
555 Timer Circuits
Remote Control Toy
H Bridge Circuit
Interconnection & Timing
Digital Signal Integrity
Digital & Bipolars
Sensors & Detectors
Regulated Power Supply
4 Band Resistor
5 Band resistor
6 Band resistor
Arduino DAC Signal Generator project
Once the circuit gets current, all variables are initialized and the loop function is continually running. Initially all LEDs are off and there is no signal at the output. By pressing the signal switch, the first light that shows the most signal is at the output and the D0-D7 terminals give the appropriate signal which, when passing from the...
1 khz oscillator
This circuit operates as an oscillator and a timer. The 2N6028 is normally on due to excess holding current through the 100 k resistor. When the switch is momentarily closed, the 10 ÂµÂ¥ capacitor is charged to a full 15 volts and 2N2926 starts oscillating (1.8 and 820 pF).
Code practice oscillator
The inexpensive 7404 hex-inverter has enough amplification to handle a wide range of transducers. Closing the key completes the battery circuit and applies four to five volts to the 7404. Bias for the first two inverter amps (Ula and Ulb) comes from the two resistors, Rl and R2, connected between their inputs and outputs. The capacitor and...
A JFET (Ql) serves as the oscillator. D2 helps to stabilize the transistor by limiting positive sinewave peaks and stabilizing the bias. Output from Ql is supplied to a class A buffer, Q2. It operates as a broadband amplifier by means of Tl, which is untuned. Output amplifier Q3 is also a class A stage. A low-pass, single-section filter is used...
Low frequency TTL oscillator
This oscillator uses standard inverters, one resistor and one capacitor, and has no minimum operating frequency. R and C must be chosen such that currents into the gates are below recommended operating limits and that leakage current into the gates and into C are small in comparison with the current in R also the output should be buffered (13)...
Quad op amp generates 4 waveforms
A quad op amp can simultaneously generate four synchronized waveforms. The two comparators (Al and A3) produce square and pulse waves, while the tWo integrators (A2 and A4) give triangular and sawtooth waves.
A sine-cosine generator
The scheme presented delivers waveforms from any function generator producing a triangular output and a synchronized TTL square wave. A1 and A2 act as a two-phase current fectifier by inverting the negative voltage appearing at the input of Al. Positive input: Both Al and A2 work as unity gain followers,D1 and D2 being in the off-state. Negative...
Wide frequency oscillator
An oscillator/amplifier is resistively tunable over a wide frequency range. Feedback circuits containing operational amplifiers, resistors, and capacitors synthesize the electrical effects of an inductance and capacitance in parallel between the input terminals. The synthetic inductance and capacitance, and, therefore, the resonant frequency of...
Multiplying pulse widths circuit
A circuit for multiplying the width of incoming pulses by a factor greater or less than unity is simple to build and has the feature that the multiplying factor can be selected by adjusting one potentiometer only. The multiplying factor is determined by setting the potentiometer in the feedback of a 741 amplifier. The input pulses of width r...
The circuit is designed around the Intersil 8038CC. Frequency range is approximately 20 Hz to 20 kHzâ€”a tuning range of 1000:1 with a single control. The output frequency depends on the value of C2 and on the setting of potentiometer Rl. Other values of C2 change the frequency range. Increase the value of C2 to lower the frequency.
Precise wave generator
The positive and negative peak amplitude is controllable to an accuracy of about Â± 0.01 V by a dc input. Also, the output frequency and symmetry are easily adjustable. The oscillator consists of an integrator and two comparatorsâ€”one comparator sets the positive peak and the other the negative peak of the triangle wave. If R1 is replaced by a...
A variable oscillator covers 3.2 to 22 MHz in two bandsâ€”providing coverage of 80 through 15 meters plus most crystal-filter frequencies. Optional 455 kHz and 10.7 MHz crystal oscillators can be switched on-line for precise if alignment. Generator output is on the order of 4 volts p-p into a 500 ohm load.
Four-decade variable oscillator
The circuit consists of a variable current source that charges a capacitor, which is rapidly discharged by a Schmitt-trigger comparator. The sawtooth waveform thus produced is fed to another comparator, one with a variable switching level. The output from the second comparator is a pulse train with an independently adjustable frequency and duty...
temperature stable oscillator
The Colpitis sinusoidal oscillator provides stable output amplitude and frequency from 0Â°F to +150Â°F. In addition, output amplitude is large and harmonic distortion is low. Oscillation is sustained by feedback from the collector tank circuit to the emitter. The oscillator's frequency is determined by: Potentiometer R3 is an output level...
Pulse generator as astable multivibrator
The pulse repetition rate is selected by positioning SI to the desired position and the rate remains essentially constant when the resistors which determine on-period and off-period are adjusted.
A Wien bridge oscillator produces sine waves with very low distortion level. The Wien bridge oscillator produces zero phase shift at only one frequency (f = Vx t RC) which will be the oscillation frequency. Stable oscillation can occur only if the loop gain remains at unity at the oscillation frequency. The circuit achieves this control by using...
RC audio oscillator with 555
Transistor Q5 and the 1000 ohm resistor form the variable element needed for controlling the frequency of VCO by limiting the charging current flowing into the 0.15 timing capacitor according to the forward bias being applied to Q5. As the voltage on pins 2 and 6 of Ul reach 2A Vcc (about 6 volts with a 9-volt supply) the timer will fire and pin...
The circuit uses two gates of a 7400 IC cross-connected to form an astable multivibrator driven by the 1-pulse per second output of the digital clock IC. The hee-haw circuit has a low frequency astable modulator added to make a self-contained European-type siren. Tone and rate can be varied as desired by changing capacitor values.
Phase tracking three-phase generator
Using a single chip LM324 can, with active R-C networks, reduce the size of a 3-phase waveform generator, and prove useful in compact and stable 3-phase inverters. One quarter of an LM324 is used as a Wien bridge oscillator generating a pure sinusoidal waveform while the remaining parts of the LM324 are used as three 120Â° fixed phase shifters.
Butler aperiodic oscillator
This circuit works well in the range of 50 kHz to 500 kHz. Slight component modifications are needed for higher frequency operation
If the output is low, application of a negative-going pulse to the trigger input sets the flip-flop (Q goes low), drives the output high, and turns off 1. Capacitor C is then charged through Ra until the voltage across the capacitor reaches the threshold voltage of the threshold input. If the trigger input has returned to a high level, the...
Single op amp oscillator
This circuit has a Schmitt trigger and integrator built around one op amp. Timing is controlled by the RC network. Voltage at the inverting input follows the RC charging exponential within the upper and lower hysteresis levels. By closing the switch SWI, the discharge time of the capacitor becomes ten times as fast as the rise time
Adjustable function generator
This low-cost operational-amplifier circuit (A) generates four different functions with adjustable periods. For the components shown here, the period of the output waveforms is given by T = 4RC and T = 2RC. With switch SI in position A, VI is a triangular waveform, while V2 is a square wave (B)
Variable audio oscillator 20hz to 20Khz
To obtain a 1000:1 Sweep Range, the voltage across external resistors Ra and Rb must decrease to nearly zero. This requires that the highest voltage on control pin 8 exceed the voltage at the top of Ra and Rb by a few hundred millivolts. The circuit achieves this by using a diode to lower the effective supply voltage on the 8038
The output-pulse width from the circuit is a linear function of the input pulse"s height. You can set the circuit"s input threshold to discriminate against low-level pulses, while fixed components limit the circuit"s maximum output -pulse width. With a 270-KO resistor connected from the -9 V supply to the base lead of Q2, this circuit can...
The oscillator section uses three sections of a 7400 quad NAND gate integrated circuit. The 1-MHz signal from the oscillator is fed into a 7 490 decade counter configured to divide by ten, providing the 100kHz signal. To obtain the 50 and 25kHz outputs, the 100-kHz signal is further divided by 7473 dual J-K flip-flop. The first half of the 74...
The gate drive that phase controls the four parallel SCRs is accomplished with complementary MOS hex gate MC14572 and two bipolar transistors. This adjustable line-synchronized driver pennits SCR conduction from near zero to 180 degrees. A Schmitt trigger clocks a delay monostable multivibrator that is followed by a pulse-width monostable...
This circuit for multiplying the width of incoming pulses by a factor greater or less than unity is simple to build and has the feature that the multiplying factor can be selected IYJ adjusting one potentiometer only. The multiplying factor is determined by setting the potentiometer in the feedback of the 741 amplifier. The input pulses e1,...
The circuit doubles tbe frequency of a digital signal by operating on botb signal edges. Each transition causes exclusive-OR gate IC1 to produce a pulse, which clocks flip-flop IC3 after propagating through buffers IC2C and IC2B. Ifyou remove capacitor Cl, tbe circuit produces narrow output pulses.
An input signal drives both SN74 74 D-type flip-flops, which are positive edge-triggered devices. A low-to-high input signal transition triggers tbe A flip-flop, while a high-to-low input signal transition triggers the B flip-flop via tbe SN7404 inverter. Either flip-flop in tbe high state will cause the output to decrease via the SN7402 NOR...
This circuit, shown symmetrically, divides an input by virtually any odd number. The circuit counts n + 1/2 clocks twice to achieve the desired divisor. By selecting the proper n, which is tbe decoded output of the LS161 counter, you can obtain divisors from 3 to 31. The circuit, as shown, divides by 25; you can obtain higher divisors by...
The frequency doubler uses only one !C. Like other doublers, this circuit uses both the rising and falling edges of the input signals to produce digital pulses, thus effectively doubling the input"s frequency. Without the rc networks at IC1 inputs, IC1 would not produce any output pulses. However, the rc networks delay one edge with respect...
Astable Oscillator Circuits
Colpitts Oscillator Circuits
Crystal Oscillator Circuits
Hartley Oscillator Circuits
RF Oscillator Circuits
Sine Wave Oscillator Circuits
Square Wave Oscillator Circuits
Volt Controlled Oscillator Circuits
Wein Bridge Oscillator Circuits
Pierce Oscillator Circuits
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
Discrimination TR-IB Metal Detector Circuit
The metal detectors can be classified according to their principle of operation in those three categories: BFO, TR/IB and PI. Each of these methods has advantages as well as disadvantages. The ideal metal detector (do not look for it because it does not exist). It should take advantage of all the advantages of all methods while eliminating their...
Geiger–Müller meter circuit project
In this page we will show how you can simply construct such a meter, which is good to have one, to show not only the existence of radioactive materials but also the dangers arising from them. The Geiger–Müller counter can be compared to a photometer. The photometer measures the visible radiation. That is, light, while the gm meter measures the...
Digital Signal Integrity
Interconnection and Timing of Digital Circuits
CMOS Circuits Tutorial