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This circuit uses LTC1043 to differentiate between a temperature sensing network and a de reference. The single-ended output biases a varactor-tuned crystal oscillator to compensate drift.
The oscillator section uses three sections of a 7400 quad NAND gate integrated circuit. The 1-MHz signal from the oscillator is fed into a 7 490 decade counter configured to divide by ten, providing the 100kHz signal. To obtain the 50 and 25kHz outputs, the 100-kHz signal is further divided by 7473 dual J-K flip-flop. The first half of the 74...
Diagram shows a 100MHz oscillator operating on the fifth harmonic. Again to maintain the transistor"s gain, note the increase in the collector"s load resistance Rl because of the increase in the quartz crystal"s internal series resistance R5. C3 is needed at frequencies above 50 MHz to tune out the shunting effect of LLon Rl, to maintain a...
Diagram shows a 50MHz oscillator operating on a third harmonic. The collector"s load resistor R1 has been increased because the quartz crystal"s internal series resistance Rs increases with frequency in the VHF range. The crystal"s internal series resistance Rs is 30ohm, and the transistor"s minimum current gain HFI, is 100.
The gate drive that phase controls the four parallel SCRs is accomplished with complementary MOS hex gate MC14572 and two bipolar transistors. This adjustable line-synchronized driver pennits SCR conduction from near zero to 180 degrees. A Schmitt trigger clocks a delay monostable multivibrator that is followed by a pulse-width monostable...
The 4047 is configured as a free-running, astable- multivibrator (oscillator) circuit. That configuration, offers three different outputs. The output pulses at the Q and Q output (pins 10 and 11, respectively) are the same as in the previous two circuits. The third output at pin 13 pulses twice as often as the outputs at 10 and 11. So, the...
This circuit for multiplying the width of incoming pulses by a factor greater or less than unity is simple to build and has the feature that the multiplying factor can be selected IYJ adjusting one potentiometer only. The multiplying factor is determined by setting the potentiometer in the feedback of the 741 amplifier. The input pulses e1,...
The circuit doubles tbe frequency of a digital signal by operating on botb signal edges. Each transition causes exclusive-OR gate IC1 to produce a pulse, which clocks flip-flop IC3 after propagating through buffers IC2C and IC2B. Ifyou remove capacitor Cl, tbe circuit produces narrow output pulses.
An input signal drives both SN74 74 D-type flip-flops, which are positive edge-triggered devices. A low-to-high input signal transition triggers tbe A flip-flop, while a high-to-low input signal transition triggers the B flip-flop via tbe SN7404 inverter. Either flip-flop in tbe high state will cause the output to decrease via the SN7402 NOR...
This circuit, shown symmetrically, divides an input by virtually any odd number. The circuit counts n + 1/2 clocks twice to achieve the desired divisor. By selecting the proper n, which is tbe decoded output of the LS161 counter, you can obtain divisors from 3 to 31. The circuit, as shown, divides by 25; you can obtain higher divisors by...
The frequency doubler uses only one !C. Like other doublers, this circuit uses both the rising and falling edges of the input signals to produce digital pulses, thus effectively doubling the input"s frequency. Without the rc networks at IC1 inputs, IC1 would not produce any output pulses. However, the rc networks delay one edge with respect...
If you need a wide-range, resistor-programmable monostable multivibrator, you can program tbe circuit for pulse widths from 1 JlS to 10s-107:1 range. A high-to-low transition at tbe input causes IC1"s output to switch low, thereby turning off Q1 and Q2. With tbe latter transistor turned off, IC3"s output increases and tbe output ofIC2 begins...
Many applications require control signals that have phase shifts with reference to an input signal. Circuit accepts a sine, square, or triangular wave as an input reference signal and produces square-wave outputs with 0", 90", 180", and 270" phase shifts with respect to the input. Figure 38-3B shows the input and output waveforms. The circuit...
Uses CA3130 BiMOS op amp that operates at a frequency of 1 kHz. With rail-to-rail output swing, frequency is independent of supply voltage, device, and temperature.
The programmable multiple output generator provides the control signals for data converter ATE. Major performance criteria are simple, interfaces to a number of microprocessor systems, low power consumption, stable output timing relationships combined with a minimum of board space. For schematic simplicity only, one output circuit is shown in...
The purpose of D-type flip-flop IC2 is to synchronize the input signal with the clock pulse. When the clock pulse changes from low to high and the input is high, IC2 output is high. Subsequently, IC3 resets to zero and starts counting up. Until the counter counts to ten, the counter is inhibited. Thus, the number of pulses of the output of...
Some applications, such as driving three-state buffers for data multiplexers or for biphase clocks in high-speed systems, require complementary signals having a small-time skew and nearly simultaneous transitions. Here, XOR gates function as both inverting and noninverting gates. For CMOS systems, practically any type of XOR gate will work.
In FSK, two discrete frequencies are used to represent the binary digits 0 and 1. The heart of the circuit consists of two Wien-bridge oscillators built using a dual op amp LM 1458, for the two frequencies. The two frequencies are enabled corresponding to digital data using two switches in SCL 4016. The control lines of these switches are...
Two comparators and a summing amplifier that generate differential harmonic spectra comprise a simple frequency multiplier. The resulting circuit can extract harmonics from a sine, triangle, sawtooth, or any other sloping-sided waveform. With a sloped-input waveform, a comparator produces an output pulse width that"s proportional to the...
Here are two FM generators for low frequency, less than 0.5 MHz center frequency, applications. Each uses a 566 function generator as a modulation generator and a second 566 as the carrier generator. Capacitor Cl selects the modulation frequency adjustment range and Cl selects the center frequency.
A positive-going trigger pulse can be used to start the timing cycle with the circuit shown. In this design, trigger input pin 2 is biased to 6V (1/z Vvv) by divider Rl and R2. Control input pin 5 is biased to 8 V (213 Vvvl by the internal divider circuit. With no trigger voltage applied, point A is at 4 V (1/3 Vvv). To tum the timer on, the...
The circuit illustrates the usefulness of the HA-5151 as a battery-powered monostable. In this circuit, the ratio is set to .632, which allows the time constant equation to be reduced to: T=R1*C1. D2 is used to force the output to a defined state by clamping the negative input at +0.6 V. Triggering is set by C1, R3, and D2.
A single op amp, one fourth of an LM324 quad op amp, is configured as a standard inverting amplifier. At power up, a positive voltage is applied to the noninverting input of Ul, via R3, forcing its output high. That high output travels along three paths.. The first path is the tone output. Along the second path, by way of R5, that high is...
This multivibrator uses a CA3420 BiMOS op amp to provide improved frequency stability. The output frequency remains essentially independent of supply voltage. Because of the inherent buffering action of pin 6,
The circuit will provide both a sine-and square-wave output for frequencies from below 20 Hz to above 20 kHz. The frequency of oscillation is easily tuned by varying a single resistor. This is a considerable advantage over Wien-Bridge circuits where two elements must be tuned simultaneously to change frequency. Also, the output amplitude is...
This astable will trigger itself and run free as a multivibrator. The external capacitor charges through RA and RB and discharges through R8 only. Thus, the duty cycle is set by the ratio of these two resistors, and the capacitor charges and discharges between 1/3 Vs and 2/3 Vs.
This circuit generates a symmetrical, 10-m V pk-pk triangle waveform which is summed with a de level and connected to the aid analog input for noise/DNL testing. The de level input offsets the triangle waveform over the input range of the ADC.
In this mode, the timer functions as a one shot. The external capacitor is initially held discharged by a transistor internal to the timer. Applying a negative trigger pulse to pin 2 sets the flip-flop, driving the output high, and releasing the short circuit across the external capacitor. The voltage across the capacitor increases with...
This is the simplest of any programmable oscil lator circuit, since only one stable timing capacitor is required. The output square wave is about 25 V pk-pk, and bas rise and fall times of about 0.5 p,s.
This generator will supply sine, triangular, and square waves from 2Hz to 20kHz. This complete test instrument can be plugged into a standard 110 Vac line for power. VoVT will be up to Â±25 V (50 V pk-pk across loads as small as 10 0 (about 2.5 A maximum output current). Capacitor working voltages should be greater than 50 V de and all...
This function generator, with an adjustment range in excess of 1,000,000 to 1, uses a CA3160 BiMOS op amp as a voltage follower, a CA3080 OTA as a high-speed comparator, and a CA3080 as a programmable- current source. Three variable capacitors, C1, C2, and C3 shape the triangular signal between 500 kH and 1 MHz.
The power bandwidth of the HA-5147 extends the circuit"s frequency range to approximately 500 kHz. R, can be made adjustable to vary the frequency ifdesired. Any timing errors because of Vas or hu., have been minimized by the precision characteristics of the HA-5147. Dl and D2, if used, should be matched to prevent additional timing...
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
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