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8051 / 8052
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H Bridge Circuit
Interconnection & Timing
Digital Signal Integrity
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4 Band Resistor
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Astable Oscillator Circuits
Colpitts Oscillator Circuits
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RF Oscillator Circuits
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Volt Controlled Oscillator Circuits
Wein Bridge Oscillator Circuits
Pierce Oscillator Circuits
This circuit uses a positive-feedback loop closed around~a combined comparator and integrator. When power is applied, the output of the comparator will switch to one of two states, to the maximum positive or maximum negative voltage. This applies a peak input signal to the integrator, and the integrator output will ramp either down or up,...
This function generator uses a CA3260 BiMOS op amp to petform both the integrator and switching functions. A 620-pF capacitor and 2-KO resistor shape feedback square wave to reduce spikes. Full audio spectrum, 10Hz to 20kHz, is covered with a single 100 potentiometer.
The pin 3 output of the 566 can be used to provide different charge and discharge currents for Cl so that a sawtooth output is available at pin 4 and a pulse at pin 3. The pnp transistor should be well saturated to preserve good temperature stability. The charge and discharge times can be estimated by using the formula shown.
The swept-frequency oscillator offers an inexpensive source of discrete frequencies for use in testing digital circuits. In this configuration, the circuit generates an 80-second seguence of eight frequencies, dwelling for 10 seconds on each frequency. You can change the dwell time or the number of frequencies. Frequencies can range from...
In a basic astable timer, configuration timing periods 11 and 12 are not controlled independently. The lack of control makes it difficult to maintain a constant period, T, if either 11 or 12 is varied. In this circuit, charge RAB and discharge R8 c resistances are detenriined by the position of common wiper arm~ of the potentiometer. So, it...
A positive transient, such as the power switch closing, charges r through L to a voltage above the supply voltage, if Q is sufficient. When the current reverses, the diode blocks and triggers the SCS. As the capacitor discharges, the anode gate approaches ground potential, depriving the anode of holding current.
Two inverters, one resistor, and one capacitor are all that is required to make a HC(T)-based oscillator that gives reliable operation up to about 10 MHz. The use of two HC inverters produces a fairly symmetrical rectangular output signal. In the same circuit, HCT inverters give a duty factor of about 25%, rather than about 50%, since the...
A Wien-bridge oscillator can be made Vllriable by using two frequency-determining parts that are varied simultaneously at high tracking accuracy. High-quality tracking potentiometers or variable capacitors are, however, expensive and difficult to obtain. To avoid having to use such a component, this oscillator was designed to operate with a...
When frequency stability is not of prime importance, a simple, yet reliable, digital clock oscillator can be made with the aid of relatively few components. High-speed CMOS (HCU/HCf) inverters or gates with an inverter function are eminently suitable to make such oscillators, thanks to their low power consumption, good output signal...
This simple rc oscillator uses a medium-speed comparator with hysteresis and feedback through Rl and Cl as timing elements. The frequency of oscillation is, at least theoretically, independent from the power supply voltage.
An exclusive-OR gate, IClD, turns a simple CMOS oscillator into an FSK generator. When the data input increases, IClD inverts, and negative feedback through R2 lowers the circuit"s output frequency. A low input results in positive feedback and a higher output frequency. Rl and C set the oscillator"s frequency range, and R2 determines the...
The common clock oscillator in Fig. 68-19A has two small problems: It might not, in fact, oscillate if the transition regions of its two gates differ. If it does oscillate, it might sometimes oscillate at a slightly lower frequency than its equation predicts because of the finite gain of the first gate. If the circuit does work,...
Capacitor C 1 charges through resistor Rl, and when the gate level established by potentiometer R2 is high enough, the SCR is triggered. Current flows through the SCR and earphones, discharging Cl. The anode voltage and current drop to a low level, so the SCR stops conducting and the cycle is repeated.
This circuit utilizes an HA-5152 dual op amp and FET to produce a low-voltage, low-power, Weinbridge sine-wave oscillator. Resistors R and capacitors C control the frequency of oscillation; the FET, used as a voltage-controlled resistor, maintains the gain of A1 exactly 3 dB to sustain oscillation. The 20Kfl pot can be used to vary the signal...
In this TMOS pulser, a negative-going pulse is applied to Ul, a high-speed CMOS buffer, which directly drives the gate ofQl, an MTP3N35. If only a 100-V pulse is required, the MTA6Nl0 can be used.
Using a precision oscillator and a few CMOS counters, you can build a precise, very low dutycycle pulse generator. You can add as many counters as you desire to make the period as long as you wish.
Comprising two low-power, CMOS chips, thepulse generator produces a precise pulse width in the 50 to 500 ns range. ICl is a dual monostable multivibrator (one shot) in which each positive trigger pulse initiates simultaneous positive output pulses at pins 6 and 10. In response, XOR gate IC2 produces a positive pulse whose duration is equal to...
The ramp generator, an inexpensive alternative to commercial function generators, provides a more linear and repeatable output than conventional analog integrators. The circuit provides a triangle waveform in burst mode; in this case, two cycles of 10.24 ms each per input trigger pulse. IC4 is a dual monostable multivibrator (one shot) in...
This unit is a single oscillator built around an LF351 JFET-input op amp. Resistors Rl and R2 bias the noninverting input while R3 biases the inverting input from the output. This layout provides lOO% negative feedback, but the decoupling caused by C2 gives reduced feedback and high-voltage gain when dealing with audio frequencies. The...
A variable Wien bridge provides frequency tuning from 20 Hz to 20kHz. Gain control comes from the positive temperature coefficient of the lamp. When power is applied, the lamp is at a low resistance value, the gain is high, and oscillation amplitude builds. The lamp"s gain-regulating behavior is flat within 0.25 dB over the 20Hz-20kHz range...
This circuit traps a single positive pulse from a square-wave train. Following the rising edge of an input command, the pulse-out signal emits a replica of one positive pulse of the clock signal simultane ous with the clock signal"s next rising edge. The 0 input command signal sets the Ql output of flip-flop "----IClA.
Nearly half duty cycle multlvibrator
Three factors contribute to the output symmetry. The capacitor charges and discharges through the same external resistor. An internal resistive divider sets accurate switching thresholds within the chip, the bipolar types use dividers, as well. Most importantly, ICl"s CMOS output stage switches fully between ground and ICc, avoiding the...
The oscillator output of the XR-567 can be amplified using the output amplifier and high-current logic output available at pin 8. In this manner, the circuit can switch 100-mA load currents without sacrificing oscillator stability.
The uA2240 timer/counter, combined with aprecision resistor ladder network and an op amp, form the staircase generator. In the astable mode, once a trigger pulse is applied, the uA2240 operates continuously until it receives a reset pulse. The trigger input at pin 11 is tied to the time base output at pin 14, resulting in automatic starting...
This circuit is a high-input impedance version of the so-called diode pump or staircase generator. Note that charge transfer takes place at the negative-going edge of the input signal. The most common application for staircase generators is in low-cost counters.
This TMOS VCO operates in push-pull to produce 4 Wot 70 MHz. It consists of two MFE930 TMOS devices in a balanced VCO that generally provide better linearity than the single-ended types. Varactors are not used because the design takes advantage of the large change in Miller capacitance, G?ss, that is available in TMOS gate structures.
You can transform a 7415124 multivibrator into a wideband VCO by replacing it conventional fixed capacitor with a variable-capacitance diode. The only disadvantage of this scheme is the 30-V biasing voltage that the diode requires. Capacitors C1 and C2 couple the Philips BB909A variable-capacitance diode to the 745124.
This circuit uses the output of the IGL8049 to control the frequency of the IGL3038 waveform generator; the 741 op amp is used to linearize the voltage-frequency response. The input voltage to the 8049 can be, for example, from the horizontal sweep signal of an oscilloscope; the output of the 8038 will then sweep logarithmically across the...
This simple circuit can convert a single supply voltage, such as a battery, into a bipolar supply. Sense resistors Rl and R2 establish relative magnitudes for the resulting positive and negative voltages. Their rail-to-rail value, of course, equals VsUPPLYÂ· R4 and R5 represent the load impedances. For example, equalvalue sense resistors...
At startup, the voltage in the trigger input at pin 2 is less than the trigger level voltage, "13 VDD. caus ing the timer to be triggered via pin 2. The output of the timer at pin 3 becomes high, allowing capacitor c, to charge very rapidly through diode Dl and resistor Rl. When capacitor C, charges to the upper threshold voltage 2 /3 V00, the...
The output frequency of the VCO, U1, varies inversely with the input voltage. With a 1 "V input, the oscillator output frequency is about 1500 Hz; with a 5-V input, the output frequency drops to around 300 Hz. The output frequency range of U1 can be altered by varying the values of C1, R2, and R3. Increasing the value of any those three...
Simple function generators normally provide sinusoidal, rectangular, and triangular waveforms, but seldom a sawtooth. Th
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
Digital Signal Integrity
Interconnection and Timing of Digital Circuits
CMOS Circuits Tutorial