Symmetry of the square-wave output is maintained by connecting the right side of R2 through resistor R3 to the output of the third amplifier stage. This changes the charging current to the capacitors in proportion to the setting of frequency-adjusting potentiometer R2. Thus, a duty cycle of 50% is constant over the entire range of oscillation. The lower frequency limit is set by capacitor C2
With the components shown, the frequency of oscillation can be varied by R2 from about 4 to 20 hertz. Other frequency ranges can be obtained by changing the values of Cl and R3, which control the upper limit of oscillation, or C2, which limits the low-frequency end.