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The modified inverting amplifier uses an active clamp to limit the output swing with precision. Allowance must be made for the V8E of the transistors. The swing is limited by the base-emitter breakdown of the transistors.
The NE592 is connected in conjunction with a MC1496 balanced modulator to form an excellent automatic gain control system. The signal is fed to the signal input of the MC1496 and re-coupled to the NE592. Unbalancing the carrier input of the MC1496 causes the signal to pass through unattenuated. Rectifying and filtering one of the NE592...
The LT1012 corrects de errors in the booster stage, and does not set high-frequency signals. Fast signals are fed directly to the stage via Q5 and the 0.01-uF coupling capacitors. De and low-frequency signals drive the stage via the op-amp"s output. The output stage consists of current sources, Q1 and Q2, driving the Q3-Q5 and Q4-Q7...
This amplifier functions over a wide range of gains, typically 1-10. It combines the LT1010 and a fast discrete stage with an LT1008 based de stabilizing loop. Q1 and Q2 form a differential stage which single-ends into the LT1010. The circuit delivers 1 V pk-pk into a typical 75-0 video load. At A = 2, the gain js within 0.5 dB to 10 MHz with...
The proliferation of industrial and computerized equipment containing programmable memory has increased the need for reliable recording media. The magnetic tape medium is presently one of the most widely used methods. The primary component of any magnetic recording mechanism is the write mechanism. The concept of the write generator is very...
Adding two passive components to a standard photodiode amplifier reduces noise. Without the modification, the shunt capacitance of the photodiode reacting with the relatively large feedback resistor of the transimpedance (current-to-voltage) amplifier, creates excessive noise gain. The improved circuit, Fig. 3-18b, adds a second pole, formed by...
This unity-gain follower amplifier has a CMOS p-channel input, an npn second-gain stage, and a CMOS inverter output. The IC building blocks are two CA3600E"s (CMOS transistor pairs) and a CA3046 npn transistor array. A zener-regulated leg provides bias for a 400-I"A p-channel source, feeding the input stage, which is terminated in an npn...
This circuit measures the power -supply current of a circuit without really having a currentshunt resistor: R1 is only 3 em of #20 gauge copper wire. A length of the power distribution wiring can be used for Rl.
The traditional restnct1on of constant gainbandwidth products for a voltage amplifier can be overcome by employing feedback around a current amplifier. Two current mirrors, constructed from transistors in a CA3096AE array, effectively turn the LF351 op amp into a current amplifier. Feedback is then applied by using R2 and R1, turning the whole...
The circuit is basically a 555 astable circuit that divides two LEDs, LEDl and LED2. LED2 is switched on when the output of Ul is high, and LEDl is activated when its output is low. When Ul oscillates, LEDl and LED2 switch on alternately as the output of Ul switches from state to state. Resistor Rl"s value is high in comparison to R2, so...
Using two SCRs, this control circuit is designed to lock out the other SCR when one has been triggered, so only one lamp will light. Indicator lamp Il is controlled by SCRl. The operator simply presses switch Sl. Lamp I2 is similarly controlled by S2 and SCR2. With both switches open, neither lamp is lit. The result is insufficient gate...
The basic die circuit is given. A 555 timer, ICl, is connected as an astable multivibrator. This feeds clock pulses to divide-by-six counter IC2 tbe outputs of which are decoded by gates Nl to N6 to drive an array of LEDs in the familiar die pattern. When switch Sl is in position b, tbe reset input of IC1 decreases and the oscillator is...
The circuit is a simple rf-actuated switch which will respond to any strong field in the region of the pickup wire. The length of the wire will depend on how much coupling is needed, but a 250-mm length wrapped around the outside of the coaxial cable feeding the antenna should suffice for most power levels. If only one band is used, the wire...
This circuit has an overall gain of 320. More gain can easily be obtained by lowering the value of R2. Untrimmed Vas is 10 11V. and Vas tempco is lessÂ· than O.lJIV/Â°C.
LTC1043 and LT1013 dual op amps are used to create a dual instrumentation amplifier using just two packages. A single DPDT section converts the differential input to a ground-referred single-ended signal at the LT1013"s input. With the input switches closed, C1 acquires the input signal. When the input switches open, C2"s switches close and...
Has an input resistance of 1-MO, a bandwidth from de to about 35 MHz, and a gain of 10 times. Lowfrequency gain is provided by a CA3130 BiMOS op amp operated as a single-supply amplifier. High-frequency gain is provided by a 40673 dual-gate MOSFET.
This circuit relies on extremely high input impedance for effective operation. The HA-5180 with its JFET input stage, performs well as a preamplifier. The standard three amplifier configuration is used with very close matching of the resistor ratios R5/R4 and (R7 + R8)/R6, to insure high common-mode rejection (CMR). The gain is controlled...
The MAX420 is operated at a gain of 191 to convert the 52 p.VI o C output of the type J thermocouple to a 10 mV/Â°C signal. The -2.2 mV/Â°C tempco of the 2N3904 is added into the summing junction with a gain of 42.2 to provide cold-junction compensation. The ICL8069 is used to remove the offset caused by the 600-m V initial voltage of the...
A very simple motion transducer can be constructed using the circuit shown. The output is biased to one-half the supply voltage. This requires special interface circuitry for the signal readout. One simple method is to use a zero center meter in a bridge configuration. Displacement now can be measured as a positive or negative meter reading.
When the digital logic level at the control input is low, the PIN diode is forward-biased by the CMOS gates. The two 1-KO bias resistors limit this current to the PIN diode"s safe forward current limit. In this state, the switch is on. When the control input is high, the diode is reverse-biased and the switch is ~ott. This switch is...
This has a stable trigger 100 m V sensitivity at 50 MHz. The FETs comprise a simple high-speed buffer and the LT1016 compares the buffer"s output to the potential at tbe trigger level potentiometer, which can be of either polarity. The 10-KO resistor provides hysteresis, eliminating "chattering"" caused by noisy input signals.
This is a single gain-of-100 amplifier with a gain-bandwidth product of 20 MHz! The primary limitation in the performance is the low slew rate (0.3 VIJ1s) imposed by IoH charging CcoMPÂ· The effects of slew rate and compensation are shown. A lower gain amplifier requires a larger CcoMP, which in turn further reduces slew rate. For this...
A basic circuit to trigger an SCR is shown in Fig. 67 -lA. This circuit has the disadvantage that the blocking voltage of the photon-coupler output device determines the circuit-blocking voltage, irrespective of higher main SCR capability. Adding capacitor Cl to the circuit, as shown in Fig. 67-lB, will reduce the dV!dt seen by the...
This circuit is effective for lamp and heater loads. Some circuits driving reactive loads require integral cycling and zero-voltage switching-when an identical number of positive and negative half cycles of voltage are applied to the load during a power period. The circuit, although not strictly a relay because of the three-terminal power...
Snubber circuit R2C2, as shown, might be necessary since Rl and Cl are tailored for optimized triggering and not for dV!dt protection. Fiber-optic pairs can be used with discrete SCRs to switch thousands of volts. A photon coupler with a transistor output will limit the trigger-pulse amplitude and rise time because of CTR and saturation...
Since standard CMOS logic operates down to 3-V supply voltages and is specified as low as 30 p.A maximum current sinking/sourcing capability, it is necessary to use a buffer transistor to provide the required current to the IRED if CMOS is to drive the optocoupler. As in the case of the low output TTL families, the H74A output can drive a...
Detection of line-current flow and indicating the flow to an electrically remote point is required in line status monitoring at a variety of points in theJelephone system and auxiliary systems. The line should be minimally unbalanced or loaded by the monitor circuit, and relatively high levels of 60-Hz induced voltages must be ignored. The...
For higher speed applications, up to 1-MHz NRZ, the Schmitt-trigger output HllL series optoisolator provides many features. The 1.6-mA drive current allows fan-in circuitry to drive the IRED,
Ql and Q2 constitute a simple, high-speed FET input buffer.Â·Ql functions as a source follower, with the Q2 current-source load setting the drain-source channel current. The LT1010 buffer provides output drive capability for cables or whatever load is required. The LTC1052 stabilizes the circuit by comparing the filtered circuit output to a...
Ql and Q2 constitute a simple, high-speed FET input buffer. Ql functions as a source follower, with the Q2 current source load setting the drain-source channel current. The LT1010 buffer provides output drive capability for cables or whatever load is required. Normally, this open-loop configuration would be quite drifty because there is no de...
Often a circuit will be called upon to perform several functions. In these situations, the variable gain configuration of this circuit could be quite useful. This programmable gain stage depends on CMOS analog switches to alter the amount of feedback, and thereby, the gain of the stage. Placement of the switching elements inside the...
The unit provides a square-wave output that is rich in harmonic content. The circuit"s output frequency can be varied from 50 Hz to 15 kHz. The heart of the circuit is a 555 astable connected in its equal mark/space mode. The frequency is controlled by potentiometer R2 and capacitor Cl.
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
Digital Signal Integrity
Interconnection and Timing of Digital Circuits
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