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AC to DC & DC to DC
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Switching Power Supplies
Light Laser LED
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8051 / 8052
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Regulated Power Supply
4 Band Resistor
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Power Supply Circuits
AC-DC & DC-DC Circuits
AC-DC & DC-DC Circuits
Regulated voltage divider
ICs requiring 3 or 6 volts can be run from a battery or fixed regulated supply of a higher voltage by using the circuit shown. The transistor should be mounted on a heatsink as considerable power will be dissipated by its collector. Additional filtering can be obtained by fitting a capacitor (Cl) as shown. The capacitance is effectively...
Variable zener diode
The circuit behaves like a zener diode over a large range of voltages. The current passing through the voltage divider R1-R2 is substantially larger than the transistor base current and is in the region of 8 mA. The stabilizing voltage is adjustable over the range 5-45 V by changing the value of R2. The total current drawn by the circuit is...
12V to 9 or 6 v converter
This circuit enables transistorized items such as radio, cassettes, and other electrical devices to be operated from a car"s electrical supply. The table gives values for resistors and specified diode types fordifferent voltage. Should more than one voltage be required a switching arrangement could be incorporated
Power pack for battery-powered devices
This circuit gives a regulated output of between 5 V and 15 Vdc, adjusted and set by a preset resistor. Current output up to about 350 mA
Simple split power supply
This circuit utilizes the quasi-complementary output stage of the popular LM380 audio power IC. The device is internally biased so that with no input the output is held midway between the supply rails Rl, which should be initially set to mid-travel, is used to nullify any inbalance in the output. Regulation of Vout depends upon the circuit...
Electronic crowbar for AC or DC lines
For positive protection of electrical or electronic equipment, use this against excessive supply voltage. Due to improper switching, wiring, short circuits, or failure of regulators, an electronic crowbar circuit can quickly place a short circuit across the power lines, thereby dropping the voltage across the protected device to near zero and...
Power protection circuit
To safeguard portable, emergency power repeaters from reverse or excessive voltage, Dl prevents incorrect polarity damage, and zener voltage determines the maximum voltage that will reach the rest of the circuitry
These circuits provide overvoltage protection in case of voltage regulator failure or application of an external voltage. Intended to be used with a supply offering some form of short circuit protection, either foldback, current limiting, or a simple fuse. The most likely application is a 5 V logic supply, since TTL is easily damaged by excess...
Overvoltage protection for logic
Zener diode ZD1 senses the supply, and should the supply rise above 6 V, Ql will turn on. In turn, Q2 conducts clamping the rail. Subsequent events depend on the source supply. It will either shut down, go into current limit or blow its supply fuse. None of these will damage the TTL chips
Fast acting power supply protection
When using a regulated power supply to reduce a supply voltage, there is always the danger that component failure in the power supply might lead to a severe overvoltage condition across the load. To cope with overvoltage situations, the circuit is designed to protect the load under overyoltage conditions. Component values given are for a 20 V...
Bilateral current source
The circuit will produce the current relationship to within 2% using 1% values for Rl through R5. This includes variations in Rl from 100 ohm to 2000 ohm. The use of large resistors for Rl through R4 minimizes the error due to Rl variations
In this circuit, a TU31 shunt regulator is used to sense the output voltage. The TU31 drives the LED of a 4N28 optocoupler which provides feedback to the MAX641 while maintaining isolation between the input, +12 V, andJhe output, +15 V.
Positive output step-up and step-down de-de converters have a common limitation in that neither can handle input voltages that are both greater than or less than the output. For example, when converting a 12-V sealed lead/acid battery to a regulated +12 V output, the battery voltage might vary from a high of 15 V down to 10 V. By using a...
This linear post regulator provides 12 V at 3 A. It employs TL431 reference Ul which, without additional amplification, drives TMOS MTP3055A gate Ql series pass regulator. Bias voltage is applied through Rl to Q1"s gate, which is protected against overvoltage by diode CRl. Frequency compensation for closed-loop stability is provided by Cl.
The diagram is a power supply circuit using the isolated feedback capabilities of the TL3103 for both current and voltage sensing. This supply is powered fromthe ac power line and has an output of 5 Vat 1.5 A. Both output voltage and current are sensed and the error voltages are applied to the error amplifiers of the TL594 PWM control !C. The...
This de adapter provides a regulated 9-V source for operating a Kenwood TR-2500 hand-held transceiver in the car. The LM317T"s mounting tab is electrically connected to its output pin, so take this into account as you construct your version of the adapter.
A MAX634 inverting regulator is combined with a MAX630 to provide a dual tracking Â±15 output from a 12-V battery. The reference for the -15 V output is derived from the positive output via R3 and R4.
The supply receives + 20 Vdc from the rectifier/filter section. This is applied to pins 11 and 12 of the uA723, as well as to the collector of the 2N3055 series-pass transistor. The output voltage is sampled through R1 and R2, providing about 7 V with respect to ground at pin 4. The reference terminal at pin 6 is tied directly to pin 5, the...
The supply receives -20 V from the rectifier/filter which is fed to the collector of the Darlington pnp pass transistor, a TIP105. The base drive to the TIP105 is supplied through resistor R5. The base of the TIP105 is driven from Vz terminal at pin 9, which is the anode of a 6.2-V zener diode that connects to the emitter of the uA723 output...
This power supply delivers plus and minus 9 V to replace two 9-V batteries. The rectifier circuit is actually two separate full-wave rectifiers fed from the secondary of the transformer. One full-wave rectifier is composed of diodes D1 and D2, which develop +9 V, and the other is composed of D3 and D4, which develop -9 V. Each .diode from...
The supply 6-66 can be used for supply output voltages from 1 to 35 V. The line transformer should be selected to give about1.4 times the desired output voltage from the positive side of filter capacitor C1 to ground. Potentiometer R2 sets the output voltage to the desired value by adjusting the reference input. Rsc is the current limit set...
This circuit generates three supply voltages using a minimum of components. Diodes D2 and D3 perform full-wave rectification, alternately charging capacitor C2 on both halves of the ac cycle. On the other hand, diode D1 with capacitor C1, and diode D4 with capacitor C3 each perform half-wave rectification. The full-and half-wave rectification...
Many systems require one or more relatively low-current voltage sources which can be programmed tna few predetermined levels. The circuit shown above produces positive output levels, but could be modified for negative or bipolar outputs. Q1 is the series regulator transistor, selected for the required current and power capability.
It is usually desirable to have the remote transmitter of a 4 to 20 mA current loop system powered directly from the transmission line. In some cases, this is not possible because of the high-power requirements set by the remote sensor/transmitter system. In these cases, an alternative to the separate power supply is still possible. If the...
This circuit consists of an astable multivibrator driving a push-pull pair of transistors into the transformer primary. The multivibrator frequency should~equal around 1 or 2kHz.
The IC8211 provides the voltage reference and regulator amplifier, while Ql is the series pass transistor. Rl defines the output current of the IC8211, while Cl and C2 provide loop stability and also act to suppress feedthrough of input transients to the output supply. R2 and R3 determine the output voltage. In addition, the values of R2...
A TMOS power FET, Ql, and an LM393 comparator provide a high-efficiency rectifier circuit. When V,. exceeds V,, Ul"s output becomes high and Ql conducts. Conversely, when VB exceeds V,., the comparator output becomes low and Ql does not conduct. The forward drop is determined by Ql"s on resistance and current I.
In the circuit shown, a CMOS op amp controls the current through a p-channel HEXFET power transistor to maintain a constant voltage across RL The current is given by: 1 ~ VREF/Rl.
One v;ay to provide good negative-voltage regulation is with a low-dropout positive-voltage regulator operating from a well-isolated secondary winding of switch-mode circuit transformer. The technique works with any positive-voltage regulator, although highest efficiency occurs with low-dropout types. Under all loading conditions, the minimum...
In this circuit. a negative output voltage de-de converter generates a -5 V output at pin A. In order to generate -5 Vat point A, the primary of the transformer must fly back to a diode drop more negative than -5 V. If the transformer has a tightly coupled 1/1 turns ratio, there will be a 5 V plus a diode drop across the secondary. The 1N5817...
In the circuit, Ql and Q2 are connected in the classic SCR or thyristor configuration. Where higher input voltages or minimum component count are required, the circuit for thyristor boost can be used. The thyristor is running in a linear mode with its cathode as the control terminal and its gate as the output terminal.
This circuit provides a continuous supply of regulated + 5 V, with automatic switch-over between line power and battery backup. When the line-powered input voltage is a + 5 V, it provides 4A V to the MAX630 and trickle charges the battery, If the line-powered input falls below the battery voltage, the 3.6 V battery supplies power to the...
Free Energy Circuits
Battery Charger Circuits
Solar Cell Circuits
Current Limiting Circuits
Micro Power Circuits
High Voltage Circuits
Switching Power Supply Circuits
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
Digital Signal Integrity
Interconnection and Timing of Digital Circuits
CMOS Circuits Tutorial