High Power Full Bridge Flyback Driver circuit
Posted on May 7, 2017 10416
The circuit first of all uses the very well known TL494 chip witch is a pulse width modulation control unit designed in a very sophisticated way. It contains two error amplifiers, an on-chip adjustable oscillator, a dead-time control(DTC) comparator, a pulse-steering control flip-flop, 5%-precision regulator, and output-control circuits.
The on-chip oscillator can be bypassed by terminating RT to the reference output and providing a sawtooth input to CT, or it can drive the common circuits in synchronous multiple-rail power supplies. The architecture of this device prohibits the possibility of either output being pulsed twice during push-pull operation. It provides for push-pull or single ended output operation, which can be selected through the output-control function.
The second IC chip that is being used as a MOSFET Driver and as inventer in the circuit is a 6A High Speed Mosfet Driver, the TC4429 by Microchip. Its an inverting driver fabricated in CMOS for lower power and more efficient operation versus bipolar drivers. Its TTL/CMOS compatible inputs can be driven as high as VDD + 0.3V or as low as 5V without upset or damage to the device. The output swing is rail-to-rail, ensuring better drive voltage margin, especially during power-up/power-down sequencing. Unlike other drivers, the TC4429 is virtually latch-up proof too. Here in circuit, it serves as an inverting mosfet driver for the half of the circuit the get the full bridge action.
The Mosfets that we use here are a fifth Generation HEXFETs IRFP250 with ultra fast switching speed and extremely efficient and reliable operation. The circuit use four of those to achive full bridge output. Half of them are driven by the TC4429 with inverted signal. Offcourse you can use other type of Mosfet to fit your needs.
The circuit uses power schottky barrier diodes to stand the high switching currents at very high speeds. Why not a simple silicon diode? Because of a high current flows in the forward direction of 600-700 mV in a typical silicon diode, while the Schottky's forward voltage is 150-450 mV. This lower forward voltage requirement allows higher switching speeds and better system efficiency. Here the ESAD85-009 schottky barrier diode is used for practical reasons in relation to PCB design and heatsink placement, but you can choose another similar type of schottky barrier diode with no problems.
PCB design and layout
The pcb is designed to have only one heatsink for 6 components. Also it fit perfectly with a heatsink taken from an old PC. I am sure most of you can find this kind of heatsink which has more or less the same dimensions. the only thing that you have to do is to open a hole 5-6mm hole at the center of the heatsink for the screw to mount it on the PCB board. This screw also compress the heatsink to the Mosfets and schottky barrier diodes underneath it and spreads the heat perfectly. Make sure you use insulating pads between all components and heatsink. If high power is being used and heat becomes a problem.You can use a small fan above the heatsink too. You can download the PCB express file at the end of the article.
Start from shorter in height components and up. Use a medium power soldering iron and follow the PCB layout diagram. Just be careful with polarities and orientation of electrolytic capacitors, diodes, ICs, Mosfets, etc. The components under the heatsink have their "back" (metallic side) on top side of PCB, where the heatsink goes. Use bases for both IC chips and place them at the end of construction, just before the first test.
operation and first run
Supply with regulated voltage Vcc 15V where the circuit shows. Use a separate power supply preferable a variable voltage and current supply at Vdd to have full control of the operation of the circuit. Unlike other similar flyback drivers, this one, if everything is placed correctly on board, it will definitely run at the first power up. If not then definitely you have at least a component wrong connected. Check again and you will get it run for sure. The flyback transformer can be any.
Remember those from old CRT TVs have internal High Voltage diode and/or voltage multiplier and the result will be pulsed DC which is used in most high voltage free energy experiments, such as those of Tesla's, Don Smith's etc. But again if you need AC output you must find a flyback transformer without internal diode, or you can build your own flyback if you have skills in building ;) Use multiturn wirewound resistors as potentiometers for better precision. Frequency range is 30-240KHz.
Be very careful with High Voltage. Only experienced and well technically educated people should experiment with high power/high Voltage experiments. Respect the power and be reasonable. High Voltage is not game, its lethal !!
PCB file: Click here to download full-bridge-flyback-driver.pcb file.
file1: Click here to download TL494.pdf