Phantom PS for Microphone
Posted on Dec 12, 2012 12230
Under: Microphone Circuits
The circuit is shown in Figure 1, and as described above, uses a voltage doubler rectifier. Diodes D1 and D2 are 1N4004 or similar. From there, a pair of resistors provide additional smoothing to the secondary filter caps. R3 is used to balance the voltage across C3 and C4, and must not be omitted. The regulator was a very common topology prior to the introduction of 3-terminal regulator ICs, and is used here so that high voltage regulators are not needed. These are much harder to get than the standard versions, and still require additional circuitry because 48V versions are not made. Although the circuit looks complex, it is very easy to build (especially if the PCB is used).
Click here to download the full size of the above Circuit.
The zener diode is the reference voltage, and 1/2 the output voltage is compared to the zener voltage by Q3 (the error amplifier). If output voltage increases (because the load current is reduced for example), Q3 is turned on harder, removing base drive from Q2 (and hence Q1), reducing the output voltage to the preset value. As can be seen, there are no adjustments, and this means that the 48V may be a little higher (or lower) than rated. This is not a problem however, and all phantom feed microphones will handle the variation without any problems at all. Load regulation is far better than you might expect, with typically 100mV variation between full load (100mA) and no load. At 200mA load, the voltage falls by less than 150mV compared to the no-load voltage. Line (input) regulation is also quite good, with less than 200mV output change with +20% and -20% input voltage, with a load of 100mA. The next problem is how to actually send the phantom power to the microphone and not the mixer input circuits. The latter will not be impressed with 48V DC applied, and will most likely voice their displeasure by failing instantly. The standard value of 6.81k (0.1% tolerance) for phantom feed circuits can be reduced to 6.8k (a standard E12 series resistor value), and I suggest that using a multimeter to match the resistors to at least 0.1% is the easiest and cheapest alternative. Each pair of resistors should be matched to...