Vacuum Tubes Valves
Musical & effects
Yagi Uda Antennas
Metal Detector Circuits
Liquid Sensing Circuits
Light Sensing Circuits
Voltage Detector Circuits
Air-Gas Detection Circuits
Human Sensing Circuits
RF & Radiation
Optical Sensing Circuits
Free Energy Circuits
AC to DC & DC to DC
Solar Cell Circuits
Micro Power Circuits
Switching Power Supplies
Light Laser LED
Digital to Analog
Analog to Digital
Data Bus Circuits
Voltage to Pulse
Current to Voltage
Frequency to Voltage
RF Converter Circuits
Sine to Square Wave
Voltage to Current
voltage to frequency
Period to Voltage
Video Wall circuits
TV Video Circuits
Motor Control Circuits
8051 / 8052
PCB CAD Software
Car bike Circuits
555 Timer Circuits
Remote Control Toy
H Bridge Circuit
Interconnection & Timing
Digital Signal Integrity
Transmitters & Receivers
Sensors & Detectors
Regulated Power Supply
4 Band Resistor
5 Band resistor
6 Band resistor
Digital Voice Recorder/Playback (UM5100)
This Circuit is based on the UM5100 which can record speech into a digital memory and then play it back. The device is designed to be used directly with static RAM's up to 256K bits, or with EPROM 's or ROM's for playback only. High quality voice reproduction is possible and note that it is not a "computer voice", it is the original speaker's...
Real-time speech recognition system application circuit in family care robot
Circuit diagram in the research and design features, are applied on the mobile robot. Therefore the study design systems to take into account small size, low power, easy to mov
Lego Double Rotation Sensor
An opto-interrupter made with Lego beams, regular parts, a 6 hole pulley wheel and an axle.
Control 32 DAC channels via a parallel port
The circuit in Figure 1 controls 32 voltage-output channels from the parallel port of a PC. The circuit comprises eight DAC7615 quad voltage-output, serial-data programmable, 12-bit DACs. The controlling PC individually programs each of the 32 DAC channels, and all DAC outputs simultaneously update. The parallel port's eight data-output lines...
AVR Robot Board
The Atmel AVR series are very good microcontrollers with quite a rich instruction set, rich enough that lots of folks have good compilers for them so we don`t have to learn their assembler. A very rich compiler available is the BASCOM/AVR compiler from MCS Electronics. I`ve used this compiler for prototyping the software on my 90S2313 robot...
The LDR`s were hand-picked. Got two packages of them from Radio Shack, looking for at least two pairs of similar parts. Then added wire-wrap pin sockets, to the circuit, so that the LDR`s could be plugged in. Currently, the 0.33UF cap is not being used on my B-Head`s. I made a long J-hook from "Jumbo Paper Clips", attached it to the motor shaft,...
Code provides adjustable differential drive for robots
Intelligently modifying the motor-drive commands to a robot can give you control finesse during competitions. Moving a joystick hard right, for example, might have different effects, depending on the robot`s speed and direction. Software running on an inexpensive microcontroller (in this case, an NEC (www.nec.com) PD78F9814) manages this control...
DC Motor-Driver H-Bridge Circuit
A very popular circuit for driving DC motors (ordinary or gearhead) is called an H-bridge. It`s called that because it looks like the capital letter `H` on classic schematics. The great ability of an H-bridge circuit is that the motor can be driven forward or backward at any speed, optionally using a completely independent power source.
Dual dc-motor-speed controllers navigate robots
Mobile robots need simple and lightweight dc-motor-speed-control hardware that can work with low-power batteries. Flip-flop type navigation systems allow only one motor to operate at a time while the other motor remains off. Navigation direction changes alternatively even when the robot has to navigate through a straight path. Line-tracker...
Me and a friend are both trying to build a millipede. Because of obvious reasons, the millipede is NOT going to have 1000 feet!!! Instead, it`s going to have 16 pager motors as feet. It will also have 3 MicroMotors to ``bend`` towards light, and a backup sensor.
Handy Cricket Hardware Description
This document presents an overview of the hardware design of the Handy Cricket.
Desktop Line Following Robot
Recently many kind of robot contests have being opened and some interesting reports of the challenge are found on the web. The Line Following is a kind of the robot contests to vie running speed on the line. I build a tiny line following robot which can run on the desk, moving the key board aside will do. It is for only a personal toy reduced...
Magnetic proximity sensors Circuit
Here is an interesting circuit for a magnetic proximity switch which can be used in various applications. The magnetic proximity switch circuit, in principle, consists of a reed switch at its heart. When a magnet is brought in the vicinity of the sensor (reed switch), it operates and controls the rest of the switching circuit. In place of the...
Trimming the Internal Clock Generator on the 68HC908KX8 Microcontroller
One of the nicest features of the 8-bit KX8 microcontroller (manufactured by Freescale Semiconductor) is that it includes an internal clock generator (ICG). This allows the chip to run without the trouble and expense of an external crystal or canned oscillator.
Bugdozer is an autonomous mini-Sumo robot. Her main board consists of a MC68HC908GP32 microcontroller along with input/output support chips, a voltage regulator, a crystal oscillator, and the usual assortment of resistors, capacitors, and switches. All chips are socket mounted. I`m not experienced at soldering, so soldering the sockets avoided...
The microcontroller is able to make about 7000 complete line-following decisions per second, which is almost 7 decisions per millimeter when the robot is going full speed. By upping the clock, unrolling loops, and removing my wireless debugging and extraneous code, I could increase the number of decisions per second.
RF Modem Robotics Project
RF is just way too cool not to use in your designs. But if you`re a newbie like me it is difficult to successfully build solid RF transmitters and receivers. When I started out I didn`t realize that the larger breadboard I was working off of was causing a lot of the signal deviance because the metal traces on the breadboard worked like small...
Inertial-navigation system uses silicon sensors
A strap-down inertial-navigation system uses silicon sensors to measure displacement without entailing the bulk and expense of moving parts or GPS receivers. For example, a three-axis accelerometer and three angular-rate sensors can determine the position and velocity of a vehicle such as a robot or radio-controlled aircraft.
Dual 8-bit ADCs provide pseudo high resolution
By using two 8-bit ADC channels for the same signal, the technique in Figure 1 can accommodate both conditions. One channel, which the controller uses for fast motion, reads the input directly and adds four 0 LSBs for a 12-bit result. The second channel reads the signal amplified by 16 with four 0 MSBs. The amplification gives this channel the...
Ultrasonic range finder
An ultrasonic, or sonar, range finder is a common sensor in robotic systems and industrial environments. Even home and automotive uses are possible. A novel sensor design consists of a WC, a few peripheral components, and a pair of ultrasonic transducers (Figure 1). The range-finder module consists of a WC, a transmitter, a receiver, a...
ALPHANUMERIC LED DISPLAY PROJECT
A tiny sandwich flag connected perpendicular to the motor spindle aids observation of how long it takes to complete one full rotation. This worked initially, as each burst from the capacitor barely moved the flag 1/4 of a rotation. As the circuit variations became more efficient and powerful (the capacitors values became larger), a single burst...
Infrared Detection with 74HC04
The two basic parts for working with IR are the emitter and the detector. The emitter is typically an LED that emits near-infrared light. A typical wavelength is 880nm, which is just beyond the human eyes ability to see. Many suppliers, new and surplus, can provide you with sources of LED emitters. A typical IR detection system will use two...
Audio Detector with LM324N
Here is one that uses a single IC (LM324 quad op amp) and a handful of parts. This circuit is for detecting one of those 3.6khz
Laser Range Finding for robots
The author's articles of months past focus on the application of 32-bit high-powered processors to amateur robotics and more recently applying CPLD technologies to the same. Continuing on this high-tech trend, this article will cover the concepts and implementation of a Real-time Laser Range Finder based on CPLD Processing of NTSC Video for use...
Well the most common use is in a solaroller which is a small wheeled car that charges up and then moves in a quick burst of speed. Since you can only use motors and coils with this circuit robots built with this circuit are mainly mechanical such as my artistic butterflies. One other common use is a little thing called a symet which can roam...
Dual Channel Servo Pulse to H-Bridge Interface
The interface uses a PIC16F876 microcontroller and not much else. It performs channel mixing, current limiting, and noise rejection. Push the stick forward, both motors move forward, move the stick to the left and the robot moves left. It makes the robot very driveable. You can use a wheel transmitter meant for cars to control it, in other...
Stepper Motor Controller
I found this circuit in my files. I don`t know where it came from, but it looks like I photocopied it from somewhere years ago. I have been told that it came from "The Robot Builder`s Bonanza", by Gordan McComb. Anyway, I thought that it should be fairly useful, so I decided to post it here. The circuit is very simple and inexpensive. This is...
Switching regulator drives robot motor
The circuit in Figure 1 shows an example of how you can use an integrated switching regulator (ISR) to efficiently vary the speed of a permanent-magnet dc motor. In this application, the rotating head of a robot senses the presence of an oncoming object (perhaps a human). If the robot senses an object, it slows the rotation of its head to...
The purpose of a motor speed controller is to take a signal representing the demanded speed, and to drive a motor at that speed. The controller may or may not actually measure the speed of the motor. If it does, it is called a Feedback Speed Controller or Closed Loop Speed Controller, if not it is called an Open Loop Speed Controller. Feedback...
Binary to Decimal Converter Circuit
The project is designed as a learning toy with a reward for determining the correct answer (see Figure 1). The object is to represent a random number, from 1 to 255, in binary form by using eight LEDs. The user enters the decimal form of the number using a keypad. The users guess is displayed on an LCD as the guess is entered. Once the guess is...
Computer Serial Port interface
Here is an inexpensive way to get slow-moving analog data directly into a spreadsheet on your computer! A simple circuit connects to a serial port and a short Qbasic program gathers and saves 12 bit data to a file. A spreadsheet automatically retrieves the file and displays the data in real time. Once the data is in the spreadsheet, the full...
Church bell Controller with ATmega32
This circuit is a church bell controller. Basic component is an ATmega32 microcontroller. At the circuit 1 24LC32 eeprom memories is being used. As control I created a menu who will be appeared on 4x20 LCD (Liquid Crystal Display). The menu browsing can be done by 6 buttons at the face of the circuit's box (Menu, Up, Down, Enter, Start, Stop)....
Stepper Motor Circuits
Remote Control Circuits
Direction Finder Circuits
Power Control Circuits
Motor Control Circuits
Construction of 50Watt 8Ω two-way Hi-Fi Speakers
The presented speakers are distinguished for their small dimensions and their extraordinary sound. Our home space is often limited and prohibitive for large speakers. This limitation does not mean that we will stay without high Sound Quality. Its design is simple, low cost and is easy to construct. Speaker types are too many and are designed in...
GSM modem circuit with Wavecom WMOi3
Modems are devices that connect either remote devices to a computer, or two or more computers to each other. Their connection is usually wired. The GSM modem we present is wireless. It can connect two computers, a computer with the internet or even be the central unit for a data acquisition system. Generally the construction is a GSM phone...
1W UHF Linear Amplifier with BLW33
This circuit is an amplifier for small transmitters operating in the UHF band, specifically in the 450-800MHz range. The amplifier works in class A and we used the well-known Philips BLW33 transistor for its manufacture. The construction, although simple, can be said to be quite critical due to the high frequency singularity. To achieve this, a...
8W Amplifier with TDA2003 circuit
Many times a small amplifier is needed to meet the needs of small spaces. This amplifier can be either mono or stereo, with this circuitry you can comfortably drive two small speakers. To build the amplifier you do not need anything but a few materials and a small power supply. The power of the amplifier, although low power, will solve many...
FM Linear Amplifier 400mW
This amplifier is intended for amplifying low signals from oscillators in the FM band. It does not have frequency regulators with variable capacitors and coils, it has a wide range and moderate power capable of driving several linear amplifiers. The whole construction is based on the two low-power 2N4427 transistors, which are designed for the...
50 Watt Hi-Fi power amplifier circuit
SGS Thomson's integrated TDA7294 is a high-frequency acoustic power amplifier, with true high-precision specifications, suited for all relevant applications. Its main feature is much higher output power than is usual in amplifiers with similar distortion performance. According to its manufacturer, the output stage of this 15-pin integrated can...
RF Remote Control Switch Rx-Tx circuits
This circuit consists of a 2048 radio remote control transmitter and the corresponding wireless receiver with very high reception sensitivity and low consumption. The combination of the two above gives a high-reliability remote control, ideal for security systems, alarms, automation, etc. At home, in the car and elsewhere. Using the wireless...
0-30V Lab Variable Power Supply
At the left side (input AC) goes the secondary of a 220 volt (primary) 18 Volt (secondary) / 3 Ampere mains transformer. The alternating voltage of 18 volts from its secondary transformer is rectified by the diodes D1, D2, D3 and D4, which are connected to a bridge arrangement and make a double rectifier. The pulse from the bridge exit is...
Ultra High Sensitivity Metal Detector Circuit
This circuit is a metal detector capable of detecting large metallic objects. at a depth of 2m to 3m. It depends on the size of the object, and often on the type of soil. Construction is very easy to implement even for a beginner. The necessary components are easy to find everywhere. This detector has the ability to detect a gold coin of 20mm...
Digital Signal Integrity
Interconnection and Timing of Digital Circuits
CMOS Circuits Tutorial
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