mosfet prevents battery damage

Posted on Feb 5, 2014

Sealed-lead-acid batteries, which find wide use in power-electronics products, such as UPS (uninterruptible-power supplies), inverters, and emergency lamps, supply power to the load whenever utility power is unavailable. When you restore utility power, a charger supplies the power to the load and charges the batteries (Figure 1). You can add a dio

mosfet prevents battery damage
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de to protect a load from current resulting from a reverse-connected battery. The diode, however, won`t protect a reverse-connected battery from the charger circuit. If the charger is on, a potentially dangerous current can flow into a reverse-connected battery. The battery voltage, which normally opposes the charging voltage, now aids it, which lets a higher current flow into the battery. If you add an N-channel MOSFET to the circuit, you can protect the battery from this damaging condition (Figure 2). The MOSFET conducts only when the battery is correctly connected, which lets the battery charge or discharge. In this condition, the transistor gets forward-biased, which switches on the MOSFET. If the battery is reverse-connected, the transistor and MOSFET turn off, thus preventing current flow. This simple circuit provides reverse-battery protection in both charger and battery paths, thereby protecting the battery, the charger, and the load. You can use a microcontroller to measure battery current and make a decision on appropriate action, as well.

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