Vacuum Tubes Valves
Musical & effects
Yagi Uda Antennas
Metal Detector Circuits
Liquid Sensing Circuits
Light Sensing Circuits
Voltage Detector Circuits
Air-Gas Detection Circuits
Human Sensing Circuits
RF & Radiation
Optical Sensing Circuits
Free Energy Circuits
AC to DC & DC to DC
Solar Cell Circuits
Micro Power Circuits
Switching Power Supplies
Light Laser LED
Digital to Analog
Analog to Digital
Data Bus Circuits
Voltage to Pulse
Current to Voltage
Frequency to Voltage
RF Converter Circuits
Sine to Square Wave
Voltage to Current
voltage to frequency
Period to Voltage
Video Wall circuits
TV Video Circuits
Motor Control Circuits
8051 / 8052
PCB CAD Software
Car bike Circuits
555 Timer Circuits
Remote Control Toy
H Bridge Circuit
DIY HV Variable Cap
DIY PMA alternator
Interconnection & Timing
Digital Signal Integrity
Digital & Bipolars
Sensors & Detectors
Regulated Power Supply
4 Band Resistor
5 Band resistor
6 Band resistor
The frame memory circuit
Digital signal processing circuit when work needs to cooperate with it with a memory for temporarily storing image data. DPTVT-3D/MV digital processing chip need four KM416S102
Discharge After the memory circuit
Discharge After the memory circuit After the memory circuit is also an instantaneous action, the delay reset circuit. When the input signal to a movement that is open when the
Discharge before memory circuit
Discharge before memory circuit Before the memory circuit is considered instantaneous action, the delay reset circuit. When the input signal to one that is action, and start ti
Buffered breakout box
The monitoring circuit consists of four tri-color LEDs driven by an equal number of op amps configured as gain-of-one inverting amplifiers. Each LED is wired in the circuit so that it glows red when the input to the op amp is high, and green when the input is low. The LED remains off when the input is disconnected from a circuit, when it's at...
Spectrum monitor with memory function circuit
Structure and working principle of this circuit is basically the same as the previous circuit, but with some of the components used in the functional minor Ran o First show different bands of the circuit is divided into seven bands, the center frequency of 2.5 octave selection,
Circuit configuration of data memory
Newman MP4 machine has three atj memory, a data memory is used to store data U7 # - one is used to store the MP4 machine work program program memory U} 8 = The last parameter is used to store user settings user memory U9. Data memory circuit arrangement in FIG.
Interfacing DRAM M5M44800 Memory with AVR AT90S8515
Is it possible to use DRAM with microcontroller AVR? Yes, it is possible. Jesperh has proved it. He hooked up a DRAM to a small processor (in this case an Microcontroller Atmel 8515), and handle the RAS/CAS sequencing and refresh in software. The type of DRAM is Hitatchi M5M44800, a 512k*8 DRAM!. Bigger than the original memory of...
Power circuit terminates DDR DRAMs
The circuit of Figure 1 provides the termination voltage for both 1.8 and 2.5V memory systems and delivers output current as high as 6A. IC1 includes a step-down controller and two linear-regulator controllers and operates with input voltages of 4.5 to 28V.
FPGA makes simple FIFO
The circuit in Figure 1 is an FPGA-based, synchronous FIFO that uses the same clock for read and write operations. The circuit can generate FIFO-occupancy flags with a minimum of logic. The boxed area in Figure 1 shows a more conventional occupancy meter. The circuit is implemented in a demultiplexer that writes data in the FIFO when the data...
Circuit gang-programs EEPROMs over I2C bus
You use the fully controlled circuit in Figure 1 to parallel-program two-wire serial EEPROMs via the I2C bus. Gang programmers must address all memory devices during a write operation. To verify the memory contents, however, the system must address only one memory at a time during read operations. Therefore, the system in Figure 1 addresses the...
Access odd memory locations without hardware
Some RISC controllers, like the NEC V850 family, use an internal 32-bit architecture with an external 16-bit bus. The architecture also allows interfaces with 8-bit memories. However, with 8-bit memories, accesses to and from odd locations automatically access the higher-order byte. Thus, you would need external transceivers to access both even...
Flash Memory VPP Generator Reference Designs
The VPP generator circuits shown here cover a range of 30mA to 240mA with 3.3V or 5V inputs as noted. Table 1 summarizes these circuits for quick reference.
The four 1K resistors on the output of U6 are too high in value for some parallel ports. Change these to 100ohm. Some LSI based parallel ports use active pull-up resistors and these are lower than the nominal 4K7 which causes a voltage divider effect. A bad design mistake. The eight LED dropper resistors are too low in value and cause pikes on...
EEPROM Driver for AVR with RAM
I had been putting off writing a driver for some 24LC64 and 24LC256 EEPROMS I was thinking about using, when I came across a temperature logger application written by Seal Ellis. The Temperature logger was posted on on www.avrfreaks.net on January 10, 2002, project ID 49. The original application was written for the ATtiny15, whichhas a small...
Removable Memory Card (MMC) on mobile phones circuit
In this tutorials we are going to tackle out how dos the memory card circuit works on mobile phones. As in my previous post I talked about memory card pin-outs and types of memory cards used on cellular phones. Okay, the block diagram below shows how the removable memory card or MMC card connection to other corresponding components. Since the mem
Extending the RAM memory of a PIC microcontroller
Dilshan designed a RAM memory extender for PIC microcontrollers. The circuit uses some logic ICs and SRAM memory modules to extend the data memory of a PIC. The designer provided source code for this project written for the MikroC compiler. With this given schematic user may be able to address RAM space up to 192KB. But this can be extended.
Single Chip Memory Call Bell
Single Chip Memory Call Bell using quad 2 input NAND gate CD4011 record when any guest come in absence of us.circuit diagram with description various doorbell project.
removable memory card
The block diagram below shows how the removable memory card or MMC card connection to other corresponding components. Since the memory card has two signal function operations, the SD mode and SPI mode, the SD mode indicates that all pins of the memory card etherSD card, miniSD cardandmicroSD cardhas a connections while in SPI mode some of the...
single cycle datapath write to register and memory at same time
Is it possible to alter a single-cycle datapath so that an add instruction not only writes to a register, but also writes to a specified memory address The only way I can think to do this is to split the value as shown bellow. I don`t think this is possible though. One of the basic principles of RISC architecture is for each instruction to only...
read and write to 74lc16b memory in picaxe
A circuit diagram and sample code is provided to read and write to 74LC16B memory from a PICAXE microcontroller..
tv memory program using at24c0 24c02n
Magnetic core memory reborn
Magnetic core memory was the most widely used form of digital computer memory from its birth in the early 1950s until the era of integrated-circuit memory began in the early 1970s. Aside from being extremely reliable, magnetic core memory is an appealing technology because it is based on a very simple idea. A magnetic core is a ring of ferrite...
DS2422 DS2422 1-Wire Temperature/Data Logger With 8kB Datalog Memory
SN74AVCA406E MMC SD Card And Memory Stick Voltage-Translation Transceiver
In this circuit SP6126 is configured as a Zeta converter to provide 0. 3A for driving four series-connected LEDs The SP6126 is a flexible and economical controller that provides the necessary functions required by a Zeta Regulator This report includes the application schematic complete with component part numbers and figures 1-2 illustrating electr
Yamaha DX7 memory backup circuit
Flash memory interface tutorial covering basic fundamentals
Flash memory or a flash RAM is a type of nonvolatile semiconductor memory device where stored data exists even when memory device is not electrically powered. It`s an improved version of electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). The difference between Flash Memory and EEPROM are, EEPROM erases and rewrite its content one byte a
How to design 65nm FPGA DDR2 memory
This article presents practical techniques for incorporating "correctness by design" in DDR2 interfaces, from a Signal Integrity (SI) perspective, using the current generation of available design tools. Some common DDR2 design errors are analyzed, as well as the tradeoffs between some popular design alternatives. Several possible address/control t
Precision Peak voltage detector with a long memory time
To check the peak voltage of the signal to change at any time. Measuring with a multimeter will not do it. We recommend this circuit. It may help you. In this circuit is used with a positive signal input, when has negative feedback only. And the inverting input can only get some feedback, when diode D1-1N4148 is forward biased. When we put the...
Doorbell Memory Circuit
If you re expecting an important visitor but you just have to step out for a moment, an electronic doorbell memory can come in handy so you can see whether someone rang while you were out. Of course, you can t tell whether it was the visitor you were expecting who dropped by then, but a call to the mobile phone of the person concerned can...
Alpine Board Memory Schematic
Classic 8051 Memory Layout
The CODE and CONST memory classes are typically stored in ROM that may be either off-chip or on-chip. The CODE memory class is used for the actual program code while the CONST memory class is used for constant variables declared in code space. In addition, up to 32 code banks may be used for code banking applications. While these are technically l
Mark 2 Memory circuit
The memory part of my Mark 2 system is extremely simple. There are two 32K SRAM chips (actually FRAM because I had them lying around, but there isn`t any significant difference in this application). These are selected with the logical OR of the MREQ signal and A15 (or inverse of A15 for the upper chip). Because the boot code for the Z80 is held by
USB Interface Circuits
Computer Interface Circuits
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
DIY HV Variable Capacitor
DIY PMA Alternator Plans
Digital Signal Integrity