This moisture detector with pump controller is built around the special purpose LM1830 IC. The LM1830 is designed to detect moisture by passing an AC current through a set of probes. An internal comparator compares the resistance of the probes to an internal reference. When the resistance between the probes is low (indicating the presence of water or other conductive liquid) then the IC triggers it's output. An AC signal avoids electroplating and corrosion problems that are common when DC is used. To provide an adjustable delay hysteresis to avoid cycling the pump, a timer based around the 555 is used a range of about 5 seconds to two minutes. In this way the pump will stay active for a set amount of time even if the fluid level is below that of the probes.
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R1 1 470 Ohm 1/4 W Resistor
R2, R4 1 10K 1/4 W Resistor
R3 1 6.8K 1/4 W Resistor
R5 1 1 Meg Linear Taper Pot
R6 1 51K 1/4 W Resistor
C1 1 470uF 35V Electrolytic Capacitor
C2 1 0.001uF Ceramic Disc Capacitor
C3 1 0.05 uF Ceramic Disc Capacitor
C4 1 20uF 35V Electrolytic Capacitor
C5 1 6.8uF 35V Electrolytic Capacitor
C6, C8 2 0.01uF Ceramic Disc Capacitor
C7 1 100uF 35V Electrolytic Capacitor
U1 1 LM1830 Fluid Detection IC
U2 1 555 Timer
Q1 1 2N5305 NPN Power Transistor
D1, D2 2 1N4148 Signal Diode
D3 1 1N4002 Rectifier Diode
K1 1 Relay With 12V Coil (See Notes)
S1 1 SPST Switch
PROBES 1 Stainless Steel Probes (See Notes)
MISC 1 Case, Knob, Board, Wire, Sockets For U1 and U2
The probes should be made of stainless steel and mounted in a non-conductive fixture. Stainless steel nails, bolts or welding rod will make ideal probes. Good non-conductive materials are Lexan, plexiglass or plastic. The probes are to be placed at the liquid level at which you wish the pump to turn on.
K1 should be chosen according to the requirements of the pump. If you are running a 12V pump then common automotive relays will work fine. If you are running a mains powered pump then you will need to make sure the contacts are rated accordingly.
S1 provides a manual pump switch.
R5 adjusts the on-time of the pump once moisture has been detected. It is adjustable from approximately 5 seconds to...
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