Posted on Feb 4, 2014

Microcontrollers are integrated circuits which consists of microprocessor with additional units like memories, input/output units (peripherals), etc. With this way of implementation, microcontrollers provide savings in time and space, and of course money. Abbreviated way of marking the microcontrollers is MCU (Microcontroller Unit), µC, or uC. In general, microcontrollers are designed so

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that they can execute a lot of different tasks, which provides an opportunity for their use in various devices. The function or the task that microcontroller executes depends on the program which is written (recorded) in it. The application of the microcontrollers is wide, from the toys, cars, industry, etc. In fact, one microcontroller can consists of different components. However, every microcontroller consists of several basic blocks, which are necessary for its normal functioning. Typical block-diagram of a microcontroller with its basic components is shown on the Picture 1. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the heart of the microcontroller. The CPU is connecting element between the rest of the units of the MCU and it coordinate their work. The main function of the CPU consists of three phases and these three phases are: catch, decode and execute. In other words, the program which is written in the MCU consists of programming instructions and the task of the CPU is to find the current instruction (catch), then to decode it, because every programming instruction is coded, and finally, after decoding the instruction (that means that the CPU now knows which instruction is that) CPU needs to execute the instruction. So, the executing of the program which is written in the MCU is nothing else, but executing the programming instructions which the program consists of, successively, one after another. From the other side,...

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