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Voltage to Pulse Circuits
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Only two external capacitors can work polarity power conversion ICL7660
Consisting of two capacitors polarity as shown by ICL7660 and external power conversion. The power supply using a dedicated integrated circuit ICL7660 polarity inversion and ex
Light to Frequency Converter TSL220
A large area photodiode and current to frequency converter combined in a clear plastic 8-pin DIL package. The output is a pulse train whose frequency is directly proportional to the light intensity. The output is CMOS compatible (use a 3k3 pulldown resistor to drive LS TTL) and the frequency can be measured by pulse counting, period timing or...
A simple voltage-to-current converter is shown in the figure. The current out is 0t or Vjn/R. For negative currents, a pnp can be used and, for better accuracy, a Darlington pah-can be substituted for the transistor. With careful design, this circuit can be used to control currents of many amps.
Conversion of triangle wave shapes to sinusoids is usually accomplished by diode-resistor shaping networks, which accurately reconstruct the sine wave segment by segment. Two simpler and less costly methods may be used to shape the triangle waveform of the 566 into a sinusoid with less than 2% distortion. The non-linear IDSVDS transfer...
Square wave-to-triangle converter
This fixed frequency triangular waveform generator driven by a TTL square wave generates typically 16-V p-p triangles at frequencies up to several MHz. It uses only one AND open collector gate, or one open collector inverter as a fast integrator with gain. Careful successive adjustments of R and PI are needed. When correct adjustments are...
The current out is Iqutâ€”Vin/R. For negative currents, a PNP can be used and, for better accuracy,-a Darlington pair can be substituted for the transistor. With careful design, this circuit can be used to control currents of many amps
Multiplexed bcd-to-parallel bcd converter
Converter consists of four quad bistable latches activated in the proper sequence by the digit strobe output of the LD110. The complemented outputs (Q) of the quad latch set reflects the state of the bit outputs when the digit strobe goes high.
DC-10Khz frequency-voltage converter
The converter generates an output voltage which is linearly proportional to the input frequency waveform. Each zero crossing at the comparator"s input causes a precise amount of change to be dispensed into the op amp"s summing junction. This charge in turn flows through the feedback resistor generating voltage pulses at the output of the op amp
Frequency-to-volt age converter
This circuit converts frequency to voltage by taking the average dc value of the pulses from the 74121 monostable multivibrator. The one shot is triggered by the positive-going ac signal at the input of the 529 comparator. The amplifier acts as a dc filter, and also provides zeroing. The accuracy is 2% over a 5 decade range
The D169 serves as a level detector and provides complementary outputs. The op amp is used to integrate the input signal Vin with a time constant of R1C1. The input (must be negative) causes a positive ramp at the output of the integrator which is summed with a negative zener voltage. When the ramp is positive enough D169 outputs change state...
The circuit accepts two positive-voltage inputs VN and Vv and provides a TTL-compatible output pulse train whose repetition mte is proportional to the ratio VN/ V0. Full-scale output frequency is about 100 Hz, and linearity error is below 0.5 percent. The outputF, equals KVn/Vd, where K = 1/(4R2C1) provided R1 = R3. Op amp IC1A alternately...
Two pairs of MOSFETs form a bridge that alternately switches current in opposite directions. Two parallel-resonant LC circuits complete the converter. The Ll/C1 combination is resonant at the fundamental frequency; the L2/C2 combination is resonant at the clock frequency"s third harmonic and acts as a trap. Tl and C3 ensure that both halves...
Single programming resistor Rp provides an output-current range of about six decades.-Note that this resistor"s TC is also a potential source of error; it dissipates 125 mW when JliN ~ 5 V. The maximum deviation is typically 50 nA or 0.0002% of full scale.
The circuit letsyou convert a serial pulse stream or sinusoidal input to a sinusoidal output at 1/32 the frequency. By varying the frequency of Vrn, you can achieve an output range ofl07:1-from about 100 kH2 to less than 0.01 H2. The output resembles that of a 5-bit d/a converter operating on paralleLdigital data. Counter IC1 generates binary...
Six components can configure a circuit whose output voltage is proportional to its input frequency. The average current (hvc from the 40106 Schmitt trigger inverter"s ground pin 8 is linearly dependent on the frequency at which CO is discharged into the op amp"s summing junction.
Circuit has a 1 Hz-to-30 MHz output, 150-dB dynamic range, for a 0 to 5 V input. It maintains 0.08% linearity over its entire 71/3 decade range with a full-scale drift of about 20 ppm/Â°C. To get the additional bandwidth, the fast )FET buffer drives the Schottky TTL Schmitt trigger. The Schottky diode prevents the Schmitt trigger from ever...
The input voltage, V1, causes C1 to charge and produce a ramp voltage at the output of the 741 op amp. Diodes D1 and D2 are four-layer devices. When the voltage across C1 reaches the breakover voltage of either diode, the diode conducts to discharge C1 rapidly and the op amp output goes abruptly to zero. This rapid discharge action applies a...
This circuit can accept positive or negative or differential control voltages. The output frequency is zero when the control voltage is zero. The 741 op amp forms a current source controlled by the voltage Ec to charge the timing capacitor C1linearly. NE555 is connected in the astable mode. so that the capacitor charges and discharges between...
This stabilized voltage-to-frequency converter features 1 Hz -1.25 MHz operation, 0.05% linearity, and a temperature coefficient of typically 20 ppm/Â°C. This circuit runs from a single 5-V supply. The converter uses a charge feedback scheme to allow the LTC1052 to close a loop around the entire circuit, instead of simply controlling the...
This 5-V circuit utilizes a servo-controlled dc/dc converter to generate the compliance voltage necessary for loop-
Power-Saving Intermittent Converter
This circuit switches its dc/dc converter, IC1, off whenever the large filter capacitor, C6, has suffic
Teledyne Semiconductor"s Type TSC9402 IC is eminently suitable as an inexpensive current-to-frequency conver
The input signal drives ICD. Because ICD"s positive input (V+) is slightly offset to + 0.1 V, its steady state
Programmable Frequency Divider
This divider uses a variable-length shift register, a type-D flip-flop, and an inverter. The clock feeds the
1Ghz Divide-By-N Counter
Counter speeds for CMOS- and TTL-programmable counters are limited to under 100 MHz. ECL-type devices can approach
Teledyne Semiconductor"s Type TSC9402 is a versatile IC. Not only can it convert voltage into frequency, but al
Potentiometer-Position V/F Converter
In this application, an AD652IC is used in a synchronized V/F converter that derives its input from th
Radio Beacon Converter
The radio beacon band extends from 280 to 516 kHz. Each beacon has its own characteristic AM"-modulated morse-coded
Low-Noise 420Mhz Atv Receiver/Converter
Ll, Ql, L2, and L3 compose an RF amplifier stage that feeds Ml, a doubly balanced mixer. Q4 is a l
The VLF Converter can be used to pick up signals for the general coverage of shortwave receivers. A number of unusual signals
This converter enables a receiver that tunes 28 to 32 MHz to receive the 144- to 148-MHz amateur band. A BF981 dual-gate
Receiver Frequency-Converter Stage
In this case, the NE602 is used in this superhet front-end configuration. Ul serves as a frequency conve
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
Digital Signal Integrity
Interconnection and Timing of Digital Circuits
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