Vacuum Tubes Valves
Musical & effects
Yagi Uda Antennas
Metal Detector Circuits
Liquid Sensing Circuits
Light Sensing Circuits
Voltage Detector Circuits
Air-Gas Detection Circuits
Human Sensing Circuits
RF & Radiation
Optical Sensing Circuits
Free Energy Circuits
AC to DC & DC to DC
Solar Cell Circuits
Micro Power Circuits
Switching Power Supplies
Light Laser LED
Digital to Analog
Analog to Digital
Data Bus Circuits
Voltage to Pulse
Current to Voltage
Frequency to Voltage
RF Converter Circuits
Sine to Square Wave
Voltage to Current
voltage to frequency
Period to Voltage
Video Wall circuits
TV Video Circuits
Motor Control Circuits
8051 / 8052
PCB CAD Software
Car bike Circuits
555 Timer Circuits
Remote Control Toy
H Bridge Circuit
Interconnection & Timing
Digital Signal Integrity
Digital & Bipolars
Sensors & Detectors
Regulated Power Supply
4 Band Resistor
5 Band resistor
6 Band resistor
Meter Counter Circuits
Capacitance to voltage meter
Timer Ul operates as a free-running oscillator at 60 Hz, providing trigger pulses to timer U2 which operates in the monostable mode. Resistor Rl is fixed and capacitor Cx is the capacitor being measured. While the output of U2 is 60 Hz, the duty cycle depends on the value of Cx. U3 is a combination low-pass filter and unity-gain follower whose...
The calibrator operates on exactly 100 kHz providing a reference for calibrating the variable time base oscillator of general purpose scopes. For example, if the scope is set so that one cycle of the signal fills exactly 10 graticule divisions then each division represents 1 MHz, or 1 microsecond. If the scope is adjusted for 10 cycles on 10...
650Mhz amplifying prescaler probe
The 650 MHz Prescaler Probe's input is terminated by resistor Rl and is fed through Cl to the diode limiter composed ofD1 through D4. Those diodes are forward-biased by the +5 volt supply for small-input signals and, in turn, feed the signal to Ul. However, for larger input signals, diodesD1 through D4 will start to turn off, passing less of the...
Cmos programmable divide-by-n counter
A single connection change permits division by any integer between 2 and 10. The RCA CD4017A Johnson decade counter is shown connected as a divide by 7 counter. The resistor is used to hold the reset line low. When the appropriate number is reached, that output and the reset line are driven high, resetting the counter. To divide by other...
To buffer a test generator to the outside world requires an amplifier with sufficient bandwidth and power handling capability. The circuit is a very simple unity gain buffer. It has a fairly high input impedance, a 50 ohm output impedance, a wide bandwidth, and high slew rate. The circuit is simply two pairs of emitter followers. The base...
Capacitive load driver
The circuit employs a 100 ohm isolation resistor which enables the amplifier to drive capacitive loads exceeding 500 pF; the resistor effectively isolates the high frequency feedback from the load and stabilizes the circuit
With a constant current excitation, the voltage dropped across an inductance in-(in creases with frequency. Thus, an active device whose output increases with frequency can be characterized as an inductance. The circuit yields such a response with the effective inductance being equal to: L = R1R2C. The Q of this inductance depends upon Rl being...
The monolithic quad operational amplifier provides an inexpensive way to increase display capability of a standard oscilloscope. Binary inputs drive the IC op amp; a dual flip-flop divides the scope"s gate output to obtain channel selection signals. All channels have centering controls for nulling offset voltage
Beam sputter for oscilloscope
The basis ofthe beam splitter is a 555 timer connected as an astable multivibrator. Signals at the two inputs are alternately displayed on the oscilloscope with a clear separation between them
Phase sequence indicator
Simple, portable phase-sequence indicator determines the proper phase rotation in polyphase circuits. Major components are two neon lamps, two resistors, and a capacitor. In operation, the leg voltages are unbalanced, so that the lamp with the maximum voltageâ€”or proper phase sequenceâ€”lights
This tester provides an audible indication of the logic level of the signal presented to its input. A logic high is indicated by a high tone, a logic low is indicated by a low tone, and oscillation is indicated by an alternating tone. The input is high impedance, so it will not load down the circuit under test. The tester can be used to...
The DUT"s(Device Under Test) cathode, anode, and gate are connected to the unit"s K, A, and G terminals, respectively. Pressing switch Â·Sl feeds a gate current to the D UT, which triggers it on. Resistor Rl limits the gate current to the appropriate level. Resistor R3 limits the current through the LED to about 20 mA, which, with the...
The pitch of the tone is dependent upon the resistance under test. The tester will respond to resistances of hundreds of kilohms, yet it is possible to distinguish differences of just tens of ohms in low-resistance circuits. Q1 and Q2 form a multivibrator, the frequency of which is influenced by the resistance between the test points. The...
Using inexpensive components, you can fit a simple probe circuit into a pencil-sized enclosure. When both LEDs are on, the probe indicates the presence of an ac voltage; either LED alone indicates the presence and polarity of a de voltage. The diode-bridge arrangement allows one-way current source Rl, R2, Ql, and Q2 to light either LED (or...
This FET probe has an input impedance of 10 M!J shunted by 8 pF. Eliminating the protective diodes reduces this impedance to about 4 pF. The frequency response of the probe extends from de to 20 MHz ( -1 dB), although higher frequency operation is possible through optimized construction and use of a UHF-type transistor. Zero de offset at the...
This compact tester checks cables for open-circuit or short-circuit conditions. A differential transistor pair at one end of each cable line remains balanced as long as the same clock pulse generated by timer IC appears at both ends of the line.
Internal Resistance Battery Tester
A designer often needs to know the value of the internal resistance of a battery. Quite a few testers gi
The battery low-voltage detector uses a CD4093 Schmitt trigger and a capacitor that acts as a 1-bit dynamic RAM. The c
Battery-Voltage Measuring Regulator
This circuit allows a microprocessor system to measure its own battery voltage. A Texas Instrument TI43
This battery tester makes use of an LM3914 bar-graph driver IC. SI selects load on battery under test and programs the volta
Nicad Battery Tester
This Nicad battery tester discharges the test battery at a rate of 500 mA. When the endpoint of 1 V (determined by set
The sensing circuit consists of a 741 op amp set up as a voltage comparator, using a zener diode as a voltage referen
Three-terminal regulator device (LM78LXX) has Vout = Vm until the input rises 1.5 to 2 V above the output when the
This unit uses switches and resistors to provide a number of current ranges. It allows you to test most of the meters availabl
A 555 timer drives Ql through Q4 with a square wave. LED1 and LED2 light when an npn or pnp transistor respectively, are
Ul is an op amp used as a comparator. When the test probes are shorted together, resistors R1 and R2 bias the noninverti
Quick Multiconductor Cable Tester
This circuit can be used to check up to an eight-conductor cable. IC1, a 555 timer, drives decade counter
The circuit consists of a 5-V regulator, constant-current source Dl, D2, and Ql, and op amp gain stage Ul. Power is provid
High-Gain Current Sensor
A high-gain amplifier using a UA741 is used to sense relative voltage drop in a conductor, and therefore current i
This circuit uses a dc amplifier (324) in a bar-graph circuit that uses an LM339 Quad comparator IC to sense dc levels.
An LF356 op amp is used as a gain amplifier with the output taken across R5, When a full-scale current of 1 mA is flowing
Tube Amplifier Isolates High Voltages
This amplifier can transfer dc-to 5-MHz signals across a potential difference of 25 000 V. This circu
Frequency Meter Circuits
VU Meter Circuits
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
Digital Signal Integrity
Interconnection and Timing of Digital Circuits
CMOS Circuits Tutorial