Vacuum Tubes Valves
Musical & effects
Yagi Uda Antennas
Metal Detector Circuits
Liquid Sensing Circuits
Light Sensing Circuits
Voltage Detector Circuits
Air-Gas Detection Circuits
Human Sensing Circuits
RF & Radiation
Optical Sensing Circuits
Free Energy Circuits
AC to DC & DC to DC
Solar Cell Circuits
Micro Power Circuits
Switching Power Supplies
Light Laser LED
Digital to Analog
Analog to Digital
Data Bus Circuits
Voltage to Pulse
Current to Voltage
Frequency to Voltage
RF Converter Circuits
Sine to Square Wave
Voltage to Current
voltage to frequency
Period to Voltage
Video Wall circuits
TV Video Circuits
Motor Control Circuits
8051 / 8052
PCB CAD Software
Car bike Circuits
555 Timer Circuits
Remote Control Toy
H Bridge Circuit
DIY HV Variable Cap
DIY PMA alternator
Interconnection & Timing
Digital Signal Integrity
Digital & Bipolars
Sensors & Detectors
Regulated Power Supply
4 Band Resistor
5 Band resistor
6 Band resistor
Key Code Combination High Security Door Lock
This project is an electronic lock with many combinations that you can easily change and opens only with the correct combination of four consecutive numbers. The big advantage of the electronic lock is that the four numbers must be entered in the correct order one after the other. If a number is wrong then the circuit automatically resets to its...
Amplifier input signal overdrive auto-protection
That circuit protects the overdriven signals going into an amplifier. Instead of a zener diode we use a transistor. That way we ensure that the above the ordinary input voltages ( 1 volt r.m.s.) can be acheaved without distortion. Also the use of a transistor limits the number of components used in this schematic.
Battery-powered fence charger
In essence, the circuit is nothing more than an auto ignition coil and a set of points which accomplishes the same thing. A pulsing circuit made from a single CMOS NOR integrated circuit (Ul), opens and closes the relay contacts to simulate the action of the original breaker points. The relay pulser is divided into two clocking functions. The...
Overvoltage protection circuit
The silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is rated to handle at least the current of the power supply. It is connected in parallel across the 12 V dc output lines, but remains inert until a voltage appears at the gate terminal. This triggering voltage is supplied by the zener diode. At potentials less than 14 V the zener will not conduct current....
The push button and potentiometer initiate a time delay that turns a light on then automatically turns it off again after a predetermined time. The potentiometer can be set for a delay of a few seconds to just under three minutes. When the push-button switch SW2 is pressed, capacitor Cl gets charged through D5 to the full dc voltage developed by...
This circuit checks the reliability of appliances so that the equipment may be used safely. The test circuit must be plugged into a properly wired three terminal wall outlet. When a two-lead or three-lead appliance is plugged into circuit outlet SOI, neon lamps NE1 and NE2 will light if the appliance is safe
Industrial applications sometimes require that power be only briefly applied to a load following the closure of a switch, such as a microswitch or foot switch. The load could be a heating element for use in sealing plastic bags, a de motor that is indexed or stepped with each application of power, or a de solenoid which is to be energized for...
The spark developed by the circuit is suitable for a gas ignitor. Capacitor Cl is charged through Rl and Dl toward peak line voltage. C2 is simultaneously being charged at a slower rate through R5. When the charge on C2 is sufficient.to trigger the PUT, the SCR is triggered on, providing a rapid discharge path for Cl through the transformer...
To avoid grief when using 12-V power supplies with mobile transceivers, especially when there is a short -circuit failure of the series pass transistor, crowbar circuits provide protection by clamping the power line and blowing the fuse within microseconds of an overvoltage condition. It is a good idea to incorporate the crowbar directly into...
This circuit uses a type 741 op amp as a voltage comparator. One input of the 7.41 is connected to a reference voltage (a 12-V battery) through a resistor voltage divider. The potential at the noninverting input of the 741 is approximately 3 V. The inverting input of the op amp comparator is connected to the output of a line-operated 8-V...
The adjustable circuit breaker responds in 0.02 sunder all conditions-provided you select a fast relay for Kl. For moderate overload conditions, it"s preferable to use the fuse or the fast-acting breaker. Toroid transformer Tl senses ac load current and produces an ac signal at the wiper of Rl, when switch S3 is closed. Diode Dl rectifies...
This circuit protects expensive portable equipment against all types of improper hookups and environmental hazards that could cause an overvoltage condition. It operates very quickly and does not latchup, that is, it recovers when the overvoltage condition is removed. In contrast, SCR overvoltage circuits can latch and do not recover, unless...
These two circuits are SSB generators. One uses a crystal filter by KVG Electronics at 9 MHz, the other uses a 455-kHz mecha
Speaker Protector Circuit
Most of the transistors in this speaker protector function as switches. Normally, Q4, Q5, and K1 are on and the speakers are connected to the amplifier. However, if a large dc voltage appears at an amplifier output, either Q3, or Ql and Q2 turn on, biasing Q4 off. That action turns Q5 off, de-energizes the relay, and disconnects the speakers...
Electronic Fuse Circuit
Basically, this circuit is an adjustable electronic circuit breaker, containing a toroidal transformer that senses 60-Hz load current. Tl has a two-turn winding for primary, and 100 turns of #30 gauge wire for the secondary. A high-low range switch selects 0.1 to 6 A or 1 to 12 A. The primary winding of Tl carries full load current and voltage;
Speaker Protection Circuit Circuit
A speaker system can be protected against amplifier failure when dc voltages (on speaker line a-b) arc sensed by the circuit. Either positive or negative dc voltages are sensed. A relay opens in this case, removing the dc from the speakers.
Overvoltage Protection Circuit Circuit
When testing a circuit, a source of voltage that is variable and has overvoltage shutdown is veiy useful. In this circuit, Rl is adjusted to 1 to 2 V below the eventual shutdown threshold. R2 sets the trip voltage. When this voltage is reached, the circuit shuts the voltage to the circuit under test down.
Ear Protector Circuit
The ear protector is actually a peak audio-detector/shutdown circuit that disables the amplifier through its chip-disable input when the output volume of an amplifier reaches the set level. The circuit, although intended for the MC34119 amplifier,
Loudspeaker Protector Circuit
Transistors Ql, Q2, and Q3 monitor the two outputs of the stereo amplifier. If the offsets exceed 2 V, Q7 is turned off, which turns off Q8 and the normally on relay. Diodes D2 and D5, together with Q4, provide a mains voltage monitor. As soon as the ac input voltage disappears, as when the amplifier is turned off, Q4 turns off arid Q5 turns...
Electric fence charger
Any good power transistor can be used in this circuit. The base resistor should be adjusted to obtain a pulse rate of about 50 pulses per minute. The range of values shown can go from 10 pulses to 100 pulses per minute. The single fence wire must be insulated at each supporting pole and should be mounted low enough to prevent an animal from...
Solid-state electric fence charger
A touch-sensing circuit keeps the high-voltage generator cut off until something touches the fence wire. Contact with the fence sensing circuit wire starts the high-voltage generator which applies a series of 500 microsecond pulses at approximately 300 volts to the fence wire. Pulse repetition rate is determined by the intruder's resistance to...
Barricade warning light flashing circuit
Using Wuxi love core Microelectronics Co., Ltd. H1.9811 single Chan flash control integrated road barricades made of flashing warning lights, HL9811
Fingerprint based attendance system with 8051
This project gives you a fingerprint based attendance system with 8051 microcontroller. The SM630 fingerprint module is used for fingerprint matching. It can store a max of 768 fingerprints. The admin can add/delete records from the PC through the VB application. There is an infrared LED and photo diode to sense the finger placed over the...
Single Zone CMOS Alarm
This circuit features automatic Exit/Entry delays, timed Bell Cut-off and System Reset. It has provision for normally open and normally closed switches and will accommodate the usual input devices such as Foil Tape, Pressure Mats, Magnetic Reed Contacts, Passive Infrared Detectors and Inertia (Shock) Sensors.
The thermistor used has a resistance of 15k at 25 degrees and 45k at 0 degrees Celsius. A suitable bead type thermistor can be found in the Maplin catalogue. The 100k pot allows this circuit to trigger over a wide range of temperatures. If using a different thermistor then the control should match the new thermistor at its highest resistance, or...
Fast Electronic Fuse
A fast electronic fuse designed to operate on 230V AC with an adjustable trip current. When the current through the load exceeds a level determined by the position of the wiper on the 1k wire-wound pot, this circuit cuts off the load immediately. If S1 is open, the range is approximately 300-650 mA, and 0.8-2A when it is closed.
Over Voltage Protection
Safety devices like fuses provide protection against excess current, but do nothing for transients and short duration spikes of high voltahe on the power supply lines.This circuit uses the "crowbar" method and provides fast protection against transient voltage spikes, transients that could cause damage to sensitive components. The thyristor will...
Nocturnal Animals Whisker
This circuit has proved very useful in keeping away from a terrace or a porch some bats and other nocturnal animals. You can use it for similar or different purposes. The lamp illuminates for a 4-5 seconds delay and stays off about one minute and 15 seconds. The photo resistor allows automatic switch-on of the circuit at dusk and switch-off at...
Morse Code Beacon Keyer
This circuit stores a single morse code message as bits in an EPROM chip, the message is sent to a relay which can key a CW transmitter. The keyer can output either a one-shot message such as "CQ DX DE CALLSIGN", or a continuous message. The continuous mode is useful for making low power (QRP) beacons. A One-shot message is controlled by the...
Coil Driver/launcher circuit
This is a fun and non-dangeros project for those people who like to throw projectiles magnetically. It simply works by placing a ferromagnetic projectile at one end of a coil and pulsing some power in it. The trick is to switch off power when the projectile is at the middle of the coil, there are some ways to do it but it isn't important now....
PC interfaced Security System
Creating a modular, networked, home control system was greatly simplified by using common 4-wire phone cable with stake-on connectors. The cable feeds both power and network signals to the various modules. Each module is made on a single sided circuit board with RJ-11 connectors (for the network / power) along with other connectors as needed....
Magnetic Card Reader with PIC12F675
The reader mechanism shown was purchased from All Electronics for $1.50. The unit provides the magnetic head on a spring mechanism along with low level head signal amplifiers and data slicers. Three signal lines comming from the unit provide card presence, clock, and data. When actively reading a card, it draws about 50ma of current at 5 volts.
Surveillance Bug Circuits
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
DIY HV Variable Capacitor
DIY PMA Alternator Plans
Digital Signal Integrity