555 audio oscillator Analog Integrated Circuits

The 555 integrated circuit is a general-purpose timer useful for a variety of functions. In this experiment, we explore its use as an astable multivibrator, or oscillator. Connected to a capacitor and two resistors as shown, it will oscillate freely, driving the LEDs on and off with a square-wave output voltage. This circuit works on the princip
555 audio oscillator Analog Integrated Circuits - schematic

le of alternately charging and discharging a capacitor. The 555 begins to discharge the capacitor by grounding the Disch terminal when the voltage detected by the Thresh terminal exceeds 2/3 the power supply voltage (Vcc). It stops discharging the capacitor when the voltage detected by the Trig terminal falls below 1/3 the power supply voltage. Thus, when both Thresh and Trig terminals are connected to the capacitor`s positive terminal, the capacitor voltage will cycle between 1/3 and 2/3 power supply voltage in a "sawtooth" pattern. During the charging cycle, the capacitor receives charging current through the series combination of the 1 M © and 100 k © resistors. As soon as the Disch terminal on the 555 timer goes to ground potential (a transistor inside the 555 connected between that terminal and ground turns on), the capacitor`s discharging current only has to go through the 100 k © resistor. The result is an RC time constant that is much longer for charging than for discharging, resulting in a charging time greatly exceeding the discharging time. The 555`s Out terminal produces a square-wave voltage signal that is "high" (nearly Vcc) when the capacitor is charging, and "low" (nearly 0 volts) when the capacitor is discharging. This alternating high/low voltage signal drives the two LEDs in opposite modes: when one is on, the other will be off. Because the capacitor`s charging and discharging times are unequal, the...

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