Vacuum Tubes Valves
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AC to DC & DC to DC
Solar Cell Circuits
Micro Power Circuits
Switching Power Supplies
Light Laser LED
Digital to Analog
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Data Bus Circuits
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Current to Voltage
Frequency to Voltage
RF Converter Circuits
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voltage to frequency
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Video Wall circuits
TV Video Circuits
Motor Control Circuits
8051 / 8052
PCB CAD Software
Car bike Circuits
555 Timer Circuits
Remote Control Toy
H Bridge Circuit
Interconnection & Timing
Digital Signal Integrity
Digital & Bipolars
Sensors & Detectors
Regulated Power Supply
4 Band Resistor
5 Band resistor
6 Band resistor
Many applications require control signals that have phase shifts with reference to an input signal. Circuit accepts a sine, square, or triangular wave as an input reference signal and produces square-wave outputs with 0", 90", 180", and 270" phase shifts with respect to the input. Figure 38-3B shows the input and output waveforms. The circuit...
The programmable multiple output generator provides the control signals for data converter ATE. Major performance criteria are simple, interfaces to a number of microprocessor systems, low power consumption, stable output timing relationships combined with a minimum of board space. For schematic simplicity only, one output circuit is shown in...
The purpose of D-type flip-flop IC2 is to synchronize the input signal with the clock pulse. When the clock pulse changes from low to high and the input is high, IC2 output is high. Subsequently, IC3 resets to zero and starts counting up. Until the counter counts to ten, the counter is inhibited. Thus, the number of pulses of the output of...
Some applications, such as driving three-state buffers for data multiplexers or for biphase clocks in high-speed systems, require complementary signals having a small-time skew and nearly simultaneous transitions. Here, XOR gates function as both inverting and noninverting gates. For CMOS systems, practically any type of XOR gate will work.
Two comparators and a summing amplifier that generate differential harmonic spectra comprise a simple frequency multiplier. The resulting circuit can extract harmonics from a sine, triangle, sawtooth, or any other sloping-sided waveform. With a sloped-input waveform, a comparator produces an output pulse width that"s proportional to the...
Here are two FM generators for low frequency, less than 0.5 MHz center frequency, applications. Each uses a 566 function generator as a modulation generator and a second 566 as the carrier generator. Capacitor Cl selects the modulation frequency adjustment range and Cl selects the center frequency.
A single op amp, one fourth of an LM324 quad op amp, is configured as a standard inverting amplifier. At power up, a positive voltage is applied to the noninverting input of Ul, via R3, forcing its output high. That high output travels along three paths.. The first path is the tone output. Along the second path, by way of R5, that high is...
This multivibrator uses a CA3420 BiMOS op amp to provide improved frequency stability. The output frequency remains essentially independent of supply voltage. Because of the inherent buffering action of pin 6,
This circuit generates a symmetrical, 10-m V pk-pk triangle waveform which is summed with a de level and connected to the aid analog input for noise/DNL testing. The de level input offsets the triangle waveform over the input range of the ADC.
This is the simplest of any programmable oscil lator circuit, since only one stable timing capacitor is required. The output square wave is about 25 V pk-pk, and bas rise and fall times of about 0.5 p,s.
This generator will supply sine, triangular, and square waves from 2Hz to 20kHz. This complete test instrument can be plugged into a standard 110 Vac line for power. VoVT will be up to Â±25 V (50 V pk-pk across loads as small as 10 0 (about 2.5 A maximum output current). Capacitor working voltages should be greater than 50 V de and all...
This function generator, with an adjustment range in excess of 1,000,000 to 1, uses a CA3160 BiMOS op amp as a voltage follower, a CA3080 OTA as a high-speed comparator, and a CA3080 as a programmable- current source. Three variable capacitors, C1, C2, and C3 shape the triangular signal between 500 kH and 1 MHz.
This function generator uses a CA3260 BiMOS op amp to petform both the integrator and switching functions. A 620-pF capacitor and 2-KO resistor shape feedback square wave to reduce spikes. Full audio spectrum, 10Hz to 20kHz, is covered with a single 100 potentiometer.
The pin 3 output of the 566 can be used to provide different charge and discharge currents for Cl so that a sawtooth output is available at pin 4 and a pulse at pin 3. The pnp transistor should be well saturated to preserve good temperature stability. The charge and discharge times can be estimated by using the formula shown.
The swept-frequency oscillator offers an inexpensive source of discrete frequencies for use in testing digital circuits. In this configuration, the circuit generates an 80-second seguence of eight frequencies, dwelling for 10 seconds on each frequency. You can change the dwell time or the number of frequencies. Frequencies can range from...
In a basic astable timer, configuration timing periods 11 and 12 are not controlled independently. The lack of control makes it difficult to maintain a constant period, T, if either 11 or 12 is varied. In this circuit, charge RAB and discharge R8 c resistances are detenriined by the position of common wiper arm~ of the potentiometer. So, it...
A positive transient, such as the power switch closing, charges r through L to a voltage above the supply voltage, if Q is sufficient. When the current reverses, the diode blocks and triggers the SCS. As the capacitor discharges, the anode gate approaches ground potential, depriving the anode of holding current.
Two inverters, one resistor, and one capacitor are all that is required to make a HC(T)-based oscillator that gives reliable operation up to about 10 MHz. The use of two HC inverters produces a fairly symmetrical rectangular output signal. In the same circuit, HCT inverters give a duty factor of about 25%, rather than about 50%, since the...
When frequency stability is not of prime importance, a simple, yet reliable, digital clock oscillator can be made with the aid of relatively few components. High-speed CMOS (HCU/HCf) inverters or gates with an inverter function are eminently suitable to make such oscillators, thanks to their low power consumption, good output signal...
This simple rc oscillator uses a medium-speed comparator with hysteresis and feedback through Rl and Cl as timing elements. The frequency of oscillation is, at least theoretically, independent from the power supply voltage.
An exclusive-OR gate, IClD, turns a simple CMOS oscillator into an FSK generator. When the data input increases, IClD inverts, and negative feedback through R2 lowers the circuit"s output frequency. A low input results in positive feedback and a higher output frequency. Rl and C set the oscillator"s frequency range, and R2 determines the...
The common clock oscillator in Fig. 68-19A has two small problems: It might not, in fact, oscillate if the transition regions of its two gates differ. If it does oscillate, it might sometimes oscillate at a slightly lower frequency than its equation predicts because of the finite gain of the first gate. If the circuit does work,...
Capacitor C 1 charges through resistor Rl, and when the gate level established by potentiometer R2 is high enough, the SCR is triggered. Current flows through the SCR and earphones, discharging Cl. The anode voltage and current drop to a low level, so the SCR stops conducting and the cycle is repeated.
In this TMOS pulser, a negative-going pulse is applied to Ul, a high-speed CMOS buffer, which directly drives the gate ofQl, an MTP3N35. If only a 100-V pulse is required, the MTA6Nl0 can be used.
Using a precision oscillator and a few CMOS counters, you can build a precise, very low dutycycle pulse generator. You can add as many counters as you desire to make the period as long as you wish.
Comprising two low-power, CMOS chips, thepulse generator produces a precise pulse width in the 50 to 500 ns range. ICl is a dual monostable multivibrator (one shot) in which each positive trigger pulse initiates simultaneous positive output pulses at pins 6 and 10. In response, XOR gate IC2 produces a positive pulse whose duration is equal to...
The ramp generator, an inexpensive alternative to commercial function generators, provides a more linear and repeatable output than conventional analog integrators. The circuit provides a triangle waveform in burst mode; in this case, two cycles of 10.24 ms each per input trigger pulse. IC4 is a dual monostable multivibrator (one shot) in...
This unit is a single oscillator built around an LF351 JFET-input op amp. Resistors Rl and R2 bias the noninverting input while R3 biases the inverting input from the output. This layout provides lOO% negative feedback, but the decoupling caused by C2 gives reduced feedback and high-voltage gain when dealing with audio frequencies. The...
The oscillator output of the XR-567 can be amplified using the output amplifier and high-current logic output available at pin 8. In this manner, the circuit can switch 100-mA load currents without sacrificing oscillator stability.
The uA2240 timer/counter, combined with aprecision resistor ladder network and an op amp, form the staircase generator. In the astable mode, once a trigger pulse is applied, the uA2240 operates continuously until it receives a reset pulse. The trigger input at pin 11 is tied to the time base output at pin 14, resulting in automatic starting...
This circuit is a high-input impedance version of the so-called diode pump or staircase generator. Note that charge transfer takes place at the negative-going edge of the input signal. The most common application for staircase generators is in low-cost counters.
Simple function generators normally provide sinusoidal, rectangular, and triangular waveforms, but seldom a sawtooth. Th
Astable Oscillator Circuits
Colpitts Oscillator Circuits
Crystal Oscillator Circuits
Hartley Oscillator Circuits
RF Oscillator Circuits
Sine Wave Oscillator Circuits
Square Wave Oscillator Circuits
Volt Controlled Oscillator Circuits
Wein Bridge Oscillator Circuits
Pierce Oscillator Circuits
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
Digital Signal Integrity
Interconnection and Timing of Digital Circuits
CMOS Circuits Tutorial