Discrete Robot

  
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This simple robot, which responds to light and avoids obstacles, can be built without using a microcontroller, programmer or PC. The only special` component in the circuit is a window discriminator (a fancy version of a window comparator). Resistors R1 and R2 in combination with light-dependent resistors LDR1 and LDR2 form a voltage divider (with
Discrete Robot - schematic

the current being limited by R1 and R2 for bright light). Window discriminator TCA965 compares the mid-point voltage with an upper threshold value (adjustable using P1) and a lower threshold value (adjustable using P2). Outputs AU, AI, AO, and AA go High if the voltage lies below, inside, above or outside this window, respectively; otherwise they remain Low. Output AA switches transistor T1, which drives the right-hand motor. The light-dependent resistors can be attached on the left and right sides of the vehicle, or at the front and rear. This causes the robot to turn to the right, due to the motor on one side being stopped, until the desired lighting relationship is restored. The vehicle will then continue to travel in a straight line until the lighting relationship again changes, at which point it will again turn, and so on. You can experiment with various behaviour patterns by using the other outputs of the window discriminator. If a transistor is provided for each of the AU and AO outputs of the TCA965, the robot can be made to travel toward or away from a light source, depending on the connections. Using the window discriminator, the robot will operate under the rules of a three-point controller (left, straight ahead, or right). If you fit the light-dependent resistors in a box under the vehicle together with a light source, you can try to have the robot follow a black line on a white background. A reflective IR...



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