PNP Transistor Analysis

Posted on Feb 4, 2014

The PNP Transistor is the exact opposite to the NPN Transistor device we looked at in the previous tutorial. Basically, in this type of transistor construction the two diodes are reversed with respect to the NPN type giving a Positive-Negative-Positive type configuration, with the arrow which also defines the Emitter terminal this time pointing in

PNP Transistor Analysis
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wards in the transistor symbol. Also, all the polarities for a PNP transistor are reversed which means that it sinks  current into its Base as opposed to the NPN transistor which sources  current through its Base. The main difference between the two types of transistors is that holes are the more important carriers for PNP transistors, whereas electrons are the important carriers for NPN transistors. Then, PNP transistors use a small base current and a negative base voltage to control a much larger emitter-collector current. In other words for a PNP transistor, the Emitter is more positive with respect to the Base and also with respect to the Collector. The construction and terminal voltages for an NPN transistor are shown above. The PNP Transistor has very similar characteristics to their NPN bipolar cousins, except that the polarities (or biasing) of the current and voltage directions are reversed for any one of the possible three configurations looked at in the first tutorial, Common Base, Common Emitter and Common Collector. The voltage between the Base and Emitter ( VBE ), is now negative at the Base and positive at the Emitter because for a PNP transistor, the Base terminal is always biased negative with respect to the Emitter. Also the Emitter supply voltage is positive with respect to the Collector ( VCE ). So for a PNP transistor to conduct the Emitter is always more positive with respect to both the Base and the...

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