Vacuum Tubes Valves
Musical & effects
Yagi Uda Antennas
Metal Detector Circuits
Liquid Sensing Circuits
Light Sensing Circuits
Voltage Detector Circuits
Air-Gas Detection Circuits
Human Sensing Circuits
RF & Radiation
Optical Sensing Circuits
Free Energy Circuits
AC to DC & DC to DC
Solar Cell Circuits
Micro Power Circuits
Switching Power Supplies
Light Laser LED
Digital to Analog
Analog to Digital
Data Bus Circuits
Voltage to Pulse
Current to Voltage
Frequency to Voltage
RF Converter Circuits
Sine to Square Wave
Voltage to Current
voltage to frequency
Period to Voltage
Video Wall circuits
TV Video Circuits
Motor Control Circuits
8051 / 8052
PCB CAD Software
Car bike Circuits
555 Timer Circuits
Remote Control Toy
H Bridge Circuit
DIY HV Variable Cap
DIY PMA alternator
Interconnection & Timing
Digital Signal Integrity
Digital & Bipolars
Sensors & Detectors
Regulated Power Supply
4 Band Resistor
5 Band resistor
6 Band resistor
Light Laser LED Circuits
Light Sensing Circuits
Light Sensing Circuits
High-power battery-operated flasher
This flasher operates from a 12-volt car or boat battery. It offers 36 to 40-watts output, variable flash rate (up to 60 flashes per minute), independent control of both on and off cycles and photoelectric night and day control that turns the flasher on at night and shuts it off during the day for automatic operation. SCR1 and SCR2 form a basic...
Optical communication system
The simple modulator stage will accommodate most common LEDs. By adjusting the potentiometer, the bias of the transistor is varied until the LED is at its half output point. Then, audio will cause it to vary above and below this point
Optical schmitt trigger
This circuit shows a 555 with its trigger and threshold inputs connected together used to energize a relay when the light level on a photoconductive cell falls below a preset value
Adjustable light detection switch
R2 sets the circuit"s threshold. When the light intensity at PCI"s surface is decreased, the resistance of PCI a cadmium-sulfide photo-resistor is increased. This decreases the voltage at the inverting input of the 741. When the reference voltage at the 741"s noninverting input is properly adjusted via R2, the comparator will switch from low to...
Light interruption detector
When the light incident on the LASCR is interrupted, the voltage at the anode to the 2N4990 unilateral switch goes positive on the next positive cycle of the power which in turn triggers the switch and the C230 SCR when the switching voltage of the unilateral switch is reached
FM (prm) optical transmitter
The basic circuit can be operated at 80 kHz and is limited by the PUT capacitor combination. 60 kHz is the maximum modulation frequency. The pulse repetition rate is a linear function of Vin, the modulating voltage. Lenses or reflectors minimizes stray light noise effects. Greater output can be obtained by using a larger capacitor, which also...
An alternate LED driver which uses the 74F3040 line driver was incorporated in this particular application example. The 74F3040.has a higher current rating, but not the variable threshold capabilities at the NE522. The LED diode is operated in the saturated on-off mode for best signal to noise. This receiver circuit consists of wideband...
This receiver uses the NE5212, the Signetics 10116 ECL line receiver, and the Phillips/Amperex BPF31 pin diode. The circuit is a capacitor-coupled receiver and utilizes positive feedback in the last stage to provide the hysteresis. The amount of hysteresis can be tailored to the individual application by changing the values of the feedback...
The circuit shows a simplex fiber link between the NE5080 transmitter and the NE5081 receiver. The components shown are for a center frequency of 5 MHz, although this frequency can be increased to 20 MHz with proper selection of external component values. The NE5539 has a 530-MHz unity gain bandwidth which could limit maximum...
This two-chip receiver with minimum external component count has been designed for low-cost fiber optic applications to 100-M baud (50 MHz). The receiver is divided into pre-and postamplifier !Cs for increased stability. The preamplifier IC features low noise with a differential transresistance design. The postamplifier IC incorporates an...
The optical signal is coupled to the pin diode. Current flowing in the diode also flows into the input of the NE5211 preamplifier. The preamplifier is a fixed-gain block that has a 28-K!J differential transimpedance and does a single-ended to differential conversion. With the signal in differential form, greater noise immunity is assured. The...
A resonance-tuned narrow-band amplifier reduces this optical object detector"s sensitivity to stray light. C1 and L1 in IC2A"s feedback loop cause tbe op amp to pass only those frequencies at or near the LED"s 5-kHz modulation rate.
A common method of transforming the output current of a photodiode into a voltage signal, paralleling the photodiode with a high-value load resistor, produces a nonlinear response. Also the combination of the load"s transresistance, Rr. and the photodiode"s junction capacitance, C" slows the circuit"s response time. Figure 67-11B shows...
Pulse generation by interrupting a light beam
This circuit puts out a pulse when an object on the conveyor belt blocks the light source. The light source keeps the phototran-sistor turned on. This produces a high-logic-level voltage at the Schmitt-trigger inverter and a TTL-compatible low logic level at pin 5 of the monostable
Photocell memory switch for AC power control
Provides remote control for ac-powered devices by using the beam of a flashlight as a magic wand. The important aspect of this gadget is that it remembers. Activate it once to apply power to a device and it stays on. Activate it a second time and power goes off and stays off
Light isolated solid state power relay circuits
Both circuits use the GE. SC146B, 200 V, 10 A Triac as load current contacts. These triacs are triggered by normal SBS (2N4992) trigger circuits, which are controlled by the photo-Darlington, acting through the DA806 bridge as an ac photo switch. To operate the relays at other line voltages the asterisked (*) components are scaled to supply...
Light-Wave Voice-Communication Transmitter Circuit
This transmitter uses a 741 op amp as a high-gain audio amplifier, which is driven by a microphone. The output of the 741 is coupled to Ql, which serves as the driver for a LED. Potentiometer R1 is the amplifier`s gain control. Miniature trimmer resistor R6 permits adjustment of the base bias of Ql for best transmitter performance. Gain control...
Light-Wave Voice-Communication Receiver Circuit
This light-wave receiver consists of a 741 operated as a preamplifier and an LM386 operated as a power amplifier. Potentiometer R2 is the gain control. Various kinds of detectors can be used as the front end of the receiver. Phototransistors are very sensitive, but they do not work well in the presence of too much ambient light.
LED operates as light sensor
Using a simple 741 amplifier connected as a current-to-voltage converter with the LED as the current source, the voltage at the output is proportional to incident light. The junction is Q biased only by the difference between the output summing node junction potential and ground, preventing the possibility of reverse breakdown. The...
Photodiode signal conditioner
The photodiode specified responds linearly to light intensity over a 100 dB range. Digitizing the diodes linearly amplified output would require an A-D converter with 17 bits of range. This requirement can be eliminated by logarithmically compressing the diode's output in the signal conditioning circuity. Al and Q4 convert the diode's...
CAR STOP LIGHT
Capacitor Cl is connected continuously through the supply of 3 volts to 10 megohm resistor Rl. The capacitor is charged (relatively slowly) to 3 volts. The wink SWI is closed, it connects the charged capacitor (Cl) in series with C2 and R2. The capacitor C2 begins to charge, by placing a positive voltage during the gate of the SCR and turn it...
Timebase circuit sensing automatic light
Using only a NE: automatic light sensor circuit composed of 55 groups, so that people can rice lights, people take the lights off. } N supply route VD1, vS, C. , (1 and R. composition, power and (1, both ends of the Sichuan Hl 12V input DC
Automatic lighting switch circuit
NE555 time base circuit with AC solid state relay SSR may constitute automatic light switch circuit, the circuit shown in FIG. From the figure can be seen during the day due to incandescent EL photosensitive resistor circuit automatically fall off when the
Day and Night Infrared Detection
The following is a method to allow day and night detection using Infrared/Visible light sensitive phototransistors and a simple LM339 voltage comparator circuit. A phototransistor is mounted between the rails so that it is covered by the train as it passes. A system widely used in model railroading. For daytime operation the room lights would be...
darkroom timer with PIC 16F84A
I tried to design a timer that would do everything it needed to do but with the smallest number of pieces and simplest mode of operation. It only needs the PIC, a four digit LED display, one other IC, a resistor network, one pushbutton switch and a capacitor. It can run on batteries if you use a solid state relay to turn the exposure light on...
Disco light effect with PIC16F84A
This is an early picture of my discolight effect. Because of the AGC circuit theres no need for potentionmeters for sensitivity adjust. I replaced them with trimmers. Now the microphone is on the control electronics because theres no need to place it outside the box and the possible noises from the surroundings are reduced.
Simple Light Detector
No description available.
6 Channel Disco Running Lights
From 230 V AC a DC supply of + 5 V is obtained. The power supply is given to the other blocks. The pulse generator at a particular frequency generates the clock pulses. The clock pulses are counted by a counter and gives output after every 10 pulses. The counter drives the transistors, which form the triac firing circuit. The transistors fire...
Color Organ Light
This circuit works REALLY well. Notice how it will fire even in complete silence. This provides a sort of automatic gain control.
Colour (Sound) Organ
Anyone who has been to a night club, concert or school dance has probobly seen a colour organ. Colour organs cause lights to blink and flash to music from your TV, stereo, guitar and even your own voice. The colour organ presented here needs no connection to the sound source, it picks up sound from its built in microphone.
Light Control System (OP295)
Sensing unit consists of infrared emitter OP295 to produce the infrared beam, & two detectors in front of the emitter to detect the infrared beam OP598. Since the main idea in this device is to know person direction; and so, to get this approach, we have to use tow pieces of infrared detector in order to identify the direction of the person....
200W Lamp Flasher with 555 timer
200W Lamp Flasher is used to flash lamps, bulbs and halogen lamp to give your product that attracting look.
Light Dimmer Circuits
Ultrasonic distance finder circuit
The circuit described here uses ultrasonic oscillations and operates based on the propagation velocity of these oscillations in the air. Thus, we can easily determine the distance of two points if the time within which the wave travels this distance is measured. There are three main categories of distance measurement methods in use: a) By...
Simple Metal detector circuit with CD4030
Sometimes the precious metals are hidden too deep and are not detected except with complicated devices. In many cases, however, small pieces of precious metal buried near the surface can be detected by relatively simple means. Everyone is very attractive to find something potentially valuable, hidden a few centimeters below the soil. So many...
Fully automatic watering circuit for flower pots
Many times for various reasons we forget or can not water the plants that we have in our homes. And many humidity sensors units just notify us with a beeping sound or with a flashing light, that the pot needs watering. But what if we are away from home? This circuit comes as a solution to this problem. Depending on humidity of the pot at...
Simple deep searching metal detector circuit
The principle behind a metal detector is really very simple. Proof of this is the circuit that follows, in which it proves that the construction of a metal detector can be done in the minute, with few components that we find very easily everywhere. With the circuit of this metal detector, it is possible to detect a metal coin in depth of 90 to...
Sub-Harmonic Bass Converter for Electric Guitars
The sub-harmonic bass generator is a sound producing unit for guitars. The sound it produces looks very much like that of the bass guitar. The octave generator is sometimes quite unusual since it does not produce any of the usual ways of coloring the sound, such as filtering or distortion. Instead, a frequency division system produces outputs...
Echo Depth Sounding Sonar for Boats
In the past the sounding (sea bottom measurement) was done with the "bullet", that is, with a heavy lead object that the seamen plucked into the sea hung from a calibrated rope. As soon as the "bullet" reached the bottom, the depth appeared directly from the calibration of the rope. This arrangement still exists in some yachts. The big...
100W HiFi Audio Amplifier Circuit
This Amplifier was designed to have the following specifications: Distortion less than 0.1% at full power of 100W even at 20KHz. Power has to be attributed to an extended bandwidth. The output transistors must be protected against short circuits. The power supply must be symmetrical so that no electrolytic capacitors are needed at the outlet....
Plant-Pot Water Level Indicator Circuit
A series of LEDs serve to alert the gardener when plants need water. Using two conventional digital integrated LEDs and a series of LEDs, we make a very useful device for gardening. The device detects the amount of water in the pot and alerts the grower. The circuit of the device is shown in Figure 2. The water detection is made from the bottom...
Analogue Sound Preasure dB-Meter Circuit
The best human ear can capture sounds from 20Hz to 20KHz. These limits are known to be the broadest that can exist. Normally the normal limits range from 100Hz to about 13KHz and depend on the age and health of the individual. We for our measurements and to have a good accuracy we will get the limits of 20Hz to 20KHz. A sound to be heard does...
DIY HV Variable Capacitor
DIY PMA Alternator Plans
Digital Signal Integrity